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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, mainly through the release of ______ from the adremal gland and the subsequent stimulation of beta-2 receptors, produces smooth muscle relaxation (bronchodilation).
Parasympathetic stimulation (_____) produces contraction (bronchoconstriction).
The most common causes of respiratory difficulties are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ______.
________ is a common respiratory condition that is caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Both conditions cause irreversible changes to the respiratory system
COPD- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
____ _____ is caused by chronic irritation of the respiratory tract. Cigaretty smoke and other environmental pollutants increase and thicken respiratory secretions of mucus. these secretions interfere with gas exchange, resulting in eventual fibrotic changes in the respiratory lining. Drug therapy can provide some relief, but it cannot reverse the fibrosis and other physical changes in the respiratory lining.
chronic bronchitis
____ is a disease process involving destruction of the alveolar walls. Consequently, there is an enlargement of the air spaces within the lungs. It is difficult to expel air from the lungs.
_____ and _____ agents are used to dilate the bronchi and to promote expectoration of bronchial secretions.
bronchodilators and mucolytic
____ is a repiratory condition characterized by shortness of breath and wheezing. These effects are caused by bronchiolar constriction. Factors that cause this include respiratory irritants (dust and noxious chemical), exercise (particularly in cold weather), respiratory tract infections, aspirin and related drugs, and allergy to foreign proteins (pollen and animal dander).
In allergic asthma, individuals develop____ to the foreign protein (antigen).
Relief of asthmatic attacks involves use of drugs that relax respiratory smooth muscle (_____) and drugs that produce antiinflammatory effects on the respiratory passageways.
What repiratory disease is mucosal edema and increased produciton of bronchial mucus. Ciliary activity of the repiratory tract is usally depressed. This decrease interferes with the clearing of mucus and other devris from the lower respiratory airways and it is an inflammatory condition of the respiratory passageways?
During an inflammatory reaction, chemial ____ are formed and released from injured tissue, mast cells, and leukocytes in the respiratory tract.
The chemical mediators involved include____, eosinophillic chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (____), and various prostaglandin dirivatives (_____ and the slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (____).
Whenever there is injury or insult to body tissue, ____ is rapidly released from mast cells. This causes bronchoconstriciton, increased vascular permeability that contributes to mucosal edema, and infiltration of leukocytes, particularly eosinophils.
______ are usually of little benefit in the treatment of asthma, and for this reason, histamine is not considered to be the most important mediator in asthma.
Eosinophillic chemotactic factor (ECF-A) is also released by mast cells and functions to attract ____ to the site of cell injury or irritation.
Eosinophils are part of the general inflammatory and allergic reaction that often occurs in the lining of the respiratory tract in asthma. The inflammatory and llergic reactioins worsena nd prolog the asthmatic process. when this occurs, antiinflammatory ____ drugs are used to suppress the inflammatory process.
The ____ are a series of chemical mediators produced by almost all body cells. When cells are irritated or injured, various of these are rapidly formed and released by the cell membranes. These produce numerous biological effects, including effects on smooth muscle, secretion of mucus, and the inflammatory process.
In asthma, on of the most important prostaglandin mediators in the ____.
SRS-A slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis
The ____ are on type of prostaglandic that is formed in asthma. During anaphylasix and asthma, the mast cells produce and release several of different one of these.
Sympathetic stimulation by epinephrine (beta -2 receptors) produces _____.
Parasympathetic activation, via the vagus nerve, produces _____ and increased secretion of mucus . Noxious irritants of the respiratory tract stimulate vagal reflexes that result in parasympathetic activation.
_____ include beta-adrenergic drugs (sympathomimetics), theophylline, and anticholinergic drugs.
_____ stimulation of bronchial smooth muscle causes bronchodilation. This effect is mediated by the beta-2 adrenergic receptors. Consequently, drugs that stimulate beta-2 receptors produce bronchodilation.
Epinephrine(which is normally released from the adremal gland) and isoproterenol are two potent beta receptor stimulators. These drugs stimulate both beta-1(heart) and beta -2 (smooth muscle )receptors. As a consequence, increased heart rate and other sympathetic effects occur in addition to bronchodilation. Overuse of these drugs may cause tachycardia and cardiac _____. These two drugs are available as OTC aerosols.
Adrenergic drugs that selectivly stimulate the ___ receptors at therapeutic doses are available. these drugs are preferred over the older drugs, which stimulate both beta 1 and beta 2 receptors. However, at higher than therapeutic doses or in susceptible individuals, the selective beta 2 drugs may cause some beta 1 receptor cardiac stimulation
beta 2 receptors
The newer drugs can be administered ___, whereas the older drugs are administered only by subcutaneous injection of aerosol
The durationof action of the newer beta adrenergic drugs are much ___, and therefore provides longer protection with fewer drug administration
_____ is the only xanthine used in the treatment of asthma. It inhibits an intracellur enzyme, phosphodiesterase, which normally inactivates cyclic AMP. By inhibiting phosphodiesterase, levels of cyclic AMP increase in bronchiolar smooth muscle and in mast cells. This action causes bronchodilation and inhibits the release of mediators from mast cells
Theophylline can be administered what three routes?
orally, rectally and intravenously
_____ is a water-soluble preparation of theophylline that is used for intravenous administration, usually during acute asthmatic attacks.
The most frequent side effects from oral administration of this drug is nausea and vomitting. Som patients experience flushing, headache, and hypotension, restlessness, insomnia, tremors, & convulsions?
______ drugs (atropine like) are not widely used in the treatment of asthma. Although they do produce some bronchodilatiion, they tend to dry mucous membranes.
By blocking the actions of acetylcholine (which increases intracellular levels of cyclic GMP), the anticholinergic drugs decrease intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, to prevent what?
_____ is a derivative of atropine and is the most widely used anticholinergic drug for asthma. It is an oral inhalatin with a slow onset but prolonged duration of action. It is poorly absorbed into the systemic circulation, and therefor causes few adverse effects. Excessive drying of the mout and upper respiratory passages may cause discomfort and is the most common side effects
Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)
Two drug classes, the ____ and the _____ inhibitors, are used to reduce and control the inflammatory reaction that occurs in asthma.
This drug class's main use is for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic conditions such as asthma. The major effect is treatment of asthma is to inhibit the inflammatory response that occur in the respiratory airways. They are used to control bronchiolar inflammation, which is a major component of asthma. Parenterally and orally
_____ (Deltasone) is widely used in bronchiolar inflammation
These drugs are more commonly administered by oral inhalation for the chronic control of asthma. Use of this route greatly reduces systemic absorption and the adverse effects associated with its use.
Corticosteroid adverse effects:
fluid retention, muscle wasting, metabolic disturbances, and increased susceptiblity to infection, the incidence of oral infections (usually fungul) and they can cause hoarseness and other vocal chord disturbances. The incidence of these adverse effects can be reduced by doing what?
rinsing the mouth with water after inhalation
Prostaglandin derivatives known as _____. These substances cause bronchoconstriction, mucus production, and inflamation.
____ (Accolate) and ____ (Singulair) are leukotriene receptor antagonists that block the receptor that leukotrienes bind to. The drugs are administered orally.
These drugs cause headache, infection, nausea, and diarrhea.
leukotriene inhibitors
_____ sodium is a drug that interferes with the antigen-antibody reaction to release mast cell mediators. The drug is taken prophylactically (before allergic exposure) on a daily basis. This is useful in certain types of nonallergic asthma.
(_____) for allergic rhinitis, as an oral inhaler (Cromolyn Sodium Inhalation, USP) or with a special device (Intal Inhaler) that delivers the drug as a fine, micronized powder for the treatment of asthma. Most frequent effects are nasal stinging, nasal irritation, headache, and bad taste. Rash, hives, cough, and angiodema.
_____(tilade) is a drug similar to cromolynn in mechanism and pharmacological effect. It is administered by oral inhalation, usually two inhalations four times per day.
____ are chemical agents that liquefy broncial mucus. These are administered by aerosol to thin or liquefy the secretions.
_____ (Mucosil, Mucomyst) contains a chemical group (sulfhydryl) that breaks apart the glycoproteins in bronchial secretion.
Acetylcysteine is irritating and can cause _____. For this reason, a bronchodilator is added to the inhalation mixture. Administration is usually by nebulization, three or four times a day, followed by postural drainage and tracheal suction when necessary.
______ are agents that stimulate the production of respiratory secretions, which then decrease the irritation and cough caused by excessive dryness of the airways. Main use is to increase the output of respiratory tract secretions, which indirectly suppresses cough.
The expectorants include salts (ammonium chloride and potassium citrate), ipecac syrup, and ____. Expectorants are addded to many cough syrups and cold medications.
After oral administration, the expectorants produce their effect by first irritating the lining of the stomach. This gastric irritation stimulates gastric reflexes that increase both gastric and respiratory tract secretion. Because of the gastric irritation, expectorants may cause ____ and ____.
nausea and vomitting