Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The symptoms of an allergic reaction indicate that individuals have become ________ to certain antigens in the environment. Antigens are substances such as pollen, mold, dust, and insect venom that stimulate the production of antibodies in the blood and tissues.
People who suffer from _____, a chronic obstructive lung disease, are highly sensitive to antigenic stimulation. Allergic reactions that occur in asthmatic people severly restrict their ability to breath.
Once an antigen has initiated an allergic reation, certain cells in the body(mast cells) release active substances into the blood. The most important substance released is _____, which interacts with other cells to produce most of the symptoms of allergy.
Drugs that block only the tissue action of histamine are known as _____. Such drugs alleviate the annoying discomfort that accompanies most allergic reactions.
Histamine is found throughout the body in the _____ cells and basophilic white blood cells.
The largest concentrations of ____ _____ are in the lungs, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the skin. When an antigen comes into contact with the skin or lungs or enters the bloodstream of sensitized individuals, the mast cells and basophils immediately release histamine into the blood.
mast cells
What are the two type of receptors associated with histamine?
H1 and H2 receptors
Histamine interacts with the ____ receptors, located on blood vessels, bronchiolar smooth muscle, and intestinal smooth muscle, to mediate allergic reactions.
The ____ receptors are located within the stomach, heart, blood vessels, and uterine tissue. The most important response mediated by these receptors is increased secretion of gastric acid.
H2 receptors are clinically important in the management of what?
GI ulcers
Histamine usually produces a transient drop in blood pressure because it dilates smally blood vessels and capillaries. With large histamine concentrations, this drop can result in _____ and circulatory collapse.
Dilation of cerebral blood vessels stimulates pain receptors in the skull. This action explains the throbbing headache known as histaminic _____.
Capillary dilation in the skin results in a localized redness called what?
Histamine causes fluids and proteins to leak out of the capillaries. When capillary leakage occcurs in the nasal mucous membranes, nasal ___ occurs.
When capillary leakage occurs in the ___, edema, wheals, or hives are produced. Itching and pain occur because of histamine irritates sensory nerve ending.
The erythema and edema produced by histamine in the skin are known as what?
The Response of Lewis
Histamine produces constraction of the smoooth muscle of the intestine and bronchioles by stimulating what receptors?
Contraction of intestinal smooth muscle results in disturbances of intestinal _____.
Contraction of the bronchiolar smooth muscle results in _____, which makes breathing difficult
Histamine usually produces rapid heartbeat. However, at high levels of histamine (histamine shocK), cardiac conduction is impaired. Such impairments may lead to the development of ______ and cardiovascular collapse.
_______ sodium (Intal, Nasalcrom) is the only availabel drug that selectively prevents the release of histamine from the mast cells. It is not a bronchodilator, a smooth muscle relaxant, or a histamine-receptor antagonist. It has no effect on histamine receptors and must be administered before histamine release has begun.
Drugs like cromolyn sodium, which prevent the onselt of symptoms ro disease as a results of exposure before the reactive process can take place, are called _____ drugs.
_______ _______ is inhaled as a fine micronized powder. the powder form allows the drug to reach the pulmonary mast cells before any antigens can induce an allergic reaction.
Cromolyn sodium
Cromolyn sodium cannot be used in acute allergic or ____ attacks in which histamine has already been released.
_______ is availabe in capsule (Spinhaler) and solution (Nasalcrom) forms for inhalation use and as capsules for oral administration (Gastrocrom)
The oral capsule formulation of Cromolyn (________), which contains a measured dose, is opened and the powder dissolved into a glass of hot water. The full glass of liquid must be consumed to receive the proper dose. Fruit juice, milk, or food will inhibit dissolution and absorption of the drug and therefore should not be consumed until 0.5 hour after dosing.
Cromolyn is currently used as a prophylactic adjunct in the management of chronic bronchial _____ and allergic ______ to prevent bronchospasms.
asthma; rhinitis
Oral cromolyn improves diarrhea, flushing, headaches, urticaris, abdominal pain, and nausea in some patients with _____, where mast cells accumulate in organs and tissues in excessive smounts. Patients may experience symptoms associated with excessive histamine release from the puritis to peptic ulcer and chronic diarrhea.
What drug causes wheezing, nasal itching, nasal burning, nausea, drowsiness, headache and occasional bronchospasms?
All of the _____ available specifically block histamine from interfacing with its H-1 receptors. Therefore, the H-1 mediated allergic reponses of histamine are prevented. They are usually administered orally because they are absorbed well from the intestinal tract.
A few antihistaminics are available for parenteral administration. These drugs are rapidly metabolized by the ____, necessitating repeated drug administration (usually two to four times a day) to maintain a therapeutic response.
First generation antihistamines include what four drugs? These agents are characterized by a nonselective interaction with peripheral and central histamine receptors.
chloropheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)
clemastine (Tavist)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
promethazine (Phenergen)
In addition to inhibiting the actions of histamine, these drugs possess local _______ and anticholinergic activity.
Through a local anesthetic action, _______ can depress sensory nerve activity and thus relieve itching and ____.
_______ (Dramamine) exerts a unique action in the brain to relieve vertigo and motion sickness and the nausea that accompanies it.
Cyproheptadine (Periactin) and azatadine (Optimine) have the ability to inhibit the actions of histamine and ______. For this reason, these two drugs may offer a wider range of relief in highly sensitized individuals.
The second generation of antihistamines, which includes what three drugs, appears to be more selective for peripheral H1 receptors. These agents are not sedation or drying and demonstrate equal antiallergic activity to the older drugs.
cetirizine (Zyrtec)
fexofenadine (Allegra)
loratadine (Claritin)
A few antihistamines have made the move from prescription to OTC status. The most recent is ______, under the trade name Clarines as prescription, and Alavert as OTC preparation.
Antihistaminins are frequently used in acute allergic reactions including urticaris, hay fever, insect bits, rhinitis, and _____.
Because of the inherent sedation, antihistaminis may be used to induce sleep in OTC sleeping adis for example, _____ or to relieve motin sickness for example Dramamine.
Certain antihistamines- chlorpromazine, perfenazine (Trilafon), prochlorperzine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergen), and triflupromazine (Vesprin)- are extremely effective in reducing _____ and vomitting. These drugs are used as adjuct pre and postoperative medications to minimize anesthetic irritability and facilitate patient recovery.
Antihistaminics are frequentsly found in cold remedies and cough syrups because of their ability to dry nasal _____.
The anticholinergic component of H1 antagonists provides relief from symptoms associated with the commoncold as well as allergic reactions such as ____ _____.
runny nose
In addition, sedcation caused by an antihistaminic in a multiingredient cold product aids recovery by promoting what?
bed rest
The most common side effects produced by the antihistaminics are drowsiness and _____.
Another frequently occuring side effect of antihistaminics is dry mouth or _________. Most of these drugs exert an antiholinergic effect that dries the mucous lining of the mouth and nasal passages. This side effect is therapeutically useful in treating the common cold.
Other adverse side effects of antihistaminics include: hypotension, rapid heartbeat, anorexia, epigastric distress and ________ _______.
urinary retention
What three antihistamines cause sedation most often?
diphenhydramine (Benadrdyl
promethazine (Phenergan)
hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
What two antihistamines cause little or no sedation?
chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)
cyproheptadine (Periactin)
Patients may become nervous and uable to sleep (insomnia) while taking ___________.
Because of their anticholinergic activity, antihistaminis drugs should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or hypertension or patients predisposed to developing an increase in ______ pressure or urinary retention.
Antihistaminics should not be used by patients with a known hypersensitivity to antihistaminics or patients with ____-_____ glaucoma, stenosing peptic ulcer, or prostatic hypertrophy; newborn or premature infant, nursing mother, and dehydrated children.
narrow- angle
Phenothiazine antihistaminics such as _____ (Phenergen) are contraindicated for use in patients with CNS depression or a history of phenothiazine-induced jaundice.
______ (Hismanal) and _____ (Seldane), both second generation antihistamines, have been removed from the market because they produced serious cardiovascular and hepatic effects that were fatal in some patients.
The proclonged indiscriminate use of topical antihistaminic preparations can lead to the development of hypersensitivity in some people. This hypersensitivity may range form rashes to _______ dermatitis, in which lesions on the skin surface ooze and develop scaly crusts.
Some ______, muscle relaxants (curare), and narcotic analgesics (morphine) cause the release of histamine from mast cells.
Drugs that depress the activity of the CNS (_____, tranquilizers, and alcohol) increase the incidence of drowsiness when takne with antihistamines, this synergistic effect is most likely to occur with OTC products that contain an antihistaminic in additon to alcohol as an active ingredient.
________ (Hismanal) has potentially serious interactions with a wide variety of drugs. This drug must be taken on an empty stomach. Food interacts with this to inhibit absorption so that the effective dose is not achieved.
______ antibiotics, erythromycin, clarithromyin, troleandomycin, and antifunguls, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole, elevate the plasma levels of these antihistamines when taken concurrently. The mechanism of interaction in inhibition of hepatic metabolism predisposing the patient to potentially life- threatening cardiotoxid effects.
_______- release preparations should not be chewed or crushed. These capsules should not be opened to devide the dose. The pellets are coated to release the drug as a variety of time intervals that cannot be determined by the patient. They shoudl be swallowed intact with water.