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118 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are common conditions caused by histamine in the body?
hayfever, rhinitis, itcihng, hives.
What can anithistamines be used for?
Decreasing allergic response
Antiulcer drugs
Motion sickness
Mild sedatives
What are three types of eicosanoids?
Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Thromboxanes
What effects on the body do eicosanoids have?
Inflammation and pain
Senstise nerve endings to pain
Capillary permeability
Induce vasodiln/heat
What are some conditions Leukotrienes cause?
Rheumatiod arthritis
Ulcerative colitis
What do thromboxanes do?
Involved in platelet agrgn
Produce thrombus
Effect vascular diameter
How do anti inflam durgs work?
By blocking phospholipase
by blocking cyclooxygenase
(lukotriene recep antags in asthma)
they: < fever, pain, inflam, clotting
What are some common NSAIDs?
How does aspirin work?
Aspirin blocks COX enzymes
(cox 1 = cell signal&platelet aggrn)
(cox2 = inflam pathway)
salicylates acetylate cox enzs
What are aspirins two main roles?
non steroidal anti inflam
inhibitor of platelet aggrgn
(does not break down clots!!)
What do corticosteriods do?
They are immune suppresant and anit inflammatory drugs
Work by inhibiting phospholipase 2
EG Prednisolone
Drugs that stimulate immunity
Antiserum, provides anitbodies for patients with no pre existing immunity. EG diptheria, rabies.(allergic rxns occur)
Vaccines, sensitize immune cells
EG tetanus,hepatitis
What are some drugs that are used to supress immunity?
How does aspirin inhibt clot formation?
in platelets, only cox 1 is detectable. so aspirin blocks cox 1 within 1 hr of oral admin, stopping thromboxane a2 for entire palelet life.
Cox 2 only inhibitors?
stop pain, fever inflam, whithout GI/ renal injury
EG celebrex
what types of drugs are used to treat haemostasis?
Antiplatelets: NSAIDs, Diprymadole
Thrombolytic: streptokinase
Anticoagulant: Heparin, Warfarin
what are the side effects of NSAIDs?
GIT disturbances
Skin rxns
Adverse renal effects
Respiratory disorder
Metabolic acidosis
What are the symptoms of aspirin disorders?
Ringing in ears
Rapid breathing, vomiting,dehydration, fever dizziness
What are the newer types of antiplatelet drugs?
ADP receptor antag=prevents fibrinogen binding

GP11b/111a recep antag=blocks binding fibrinogen and clotting factors
Pharmacological treatment for stroke?


drugs modulating behaviour, cognition, motor activity. anxiolyics, antipsychotics, sedatives, antidepressants, antiseizure drugs.
Blood brain barrier
(ths CNS drugs normally able to cross BBB)
bain capillaries tightly connected to each other, surr by astrocytes. selectively permeable to water, gases, ethanol and lipid sol molecules.
CNS neurotransmitters
Monoamines:Noradrenaline, Adrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, Histamine.
Inhibitory: GABA
Excitatory: Glutamate
also: Ach.
behaviour, hormonal release, motor control, vomiting, addiction, mood, nerves.
cognition and memory, motor function, implicated in Alzheimers and Parkinsons.
Arousal, sleep, mood, appetite, temperature control, hormone release.

Behaviour, mood, eating

Inhibitory, < acitvity.
how can CNS drugs effect NTs?
Reuptake in nerve terminal
Types of mental disorders
Mood disorders
Organic mental disorders
Sleep disorders
Others: eating disorders etc
hypnotics and sedatives
used for insomnia, anxiety and as general anaesthetics.
EG Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates
Barbiturates-how do they work
Hypnotic & Sedative
Acts on GABA, fast inhibitory action, < motor activity & anxiety
CNS depressant (ie <respirn)
Barbiturates-what are the effects of?
Loss of conciousness without pain relief!
low therap index = dangerous
death due to resp and CV deprn
Pharmacokinetic tolerance devel
Benzodiazepines-how do they work?
Facilitates binding of GABA
action = hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedatvie, musc relaxant.
EG midazolam, diazepam
Benzodiazepines -what are the effects of
< anxiety, <aggression
Adverse rxns of Barbits and Benzos
CNS depression
resp depression
drowsy, mem loss, confusion
Dont mix with alcohol or other cns depressants
Tolerance and dependance can occur!
Schizophrenic/ psychosis disordes. what diseases can present like these disorders?
metabolic and endocrine disorders, brain tumor, cerebrovasc diseas, hypoglyc, MS, <vit b12
What drugs can mainfest symptoms?
Beta blockers
What are Neuroleptic(antipsychotic) drugs used for?
they are major tranquillisers that antagonize dopamine receptors
used for symptoms of psychoses, schizophrenia.
just relieve sypmtoms.
what are the three main groups of chemicals used as Neuroleptics?
Phenothiazine = Largactil
Thioxanthene =chlorprothixine
Butyrophenone = Haldol/ Serenance
Typical Antipsychotics (work on dopamine receps)
Atypical Antipsychotics (work by different mechs)
can help to < side effects or work in ppl resistant to Antisyc
Side effects of Antipsychotics?
these drugs also block other NTs
Apathy, < initiative
poor compliance
involuntary movt(ie shakes)
endocrine effects
dry mouth, urine retention
liver, skin + eye changes
Mood stabilisers
Lithium salts
Mehcanism of action unclear, controls mania, prevents mood swings, low therap index, adverse rxns
> effects of catecholamines(Ad/NAd)
Amphetaimes & Methylxanthins
Antidepressants, what are the four types?
Tricyclic Antidepressants
Serotonin/ NAd selective reuptake inhibs
Monoamine oxidase inhibs
Atypical antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants
how do they work, side effects
block reuptake of NAd into nerve terminal.
SE= sedation, confusion
may block other recps, dont mix with alcohol/ antihypertensives
Selective re uptake inhibs
Serotonin sel reups: prozac, aropax, zoloft
Serotonin/NAd sel reups: efexor
SE= nausea, insomnia
MOAI's: two types A and B
A:in liver, gut+brain
B:most in brain
Site of action:NAd/ Serotnin synapses
what foods cant patients on MAOIs eat?
Tyramine rich foods such as cheese, wine, beer, chocolate, bananas.
Causes hypertension!
what are the side effects of antidepressants?
tricylclic:antimusc, antiadrenergic effects

Selec sero/NAd reuptakers: headache nausea vomiting insomnia

MAOI:Nausea, dietry restriction(hypertensive crisis) insomnia
Epilepsy describe?
electrical discharge across cerebral cortex(nerves firing)
focal, diffuse, partial, generalised seizure
violent muscle spasm
what are the actions of an antiepileptic?
> GABA action
inhibit Na channel fn
inhibit Ca channel fn
inhibit Glutamate release
all to stop neruon excitability.
Types of drugs?
Hydantoins:< nerve firing
Succinimides:inhib Ca channels
What other drugs can be used for epilepsy?
Muscle relaxants ie Quinine

What are the major drug groups used?
B recep blockers
alpha recep blockers
Ca channel recep blockers
ACE inhibs
Ang II blockers
Cardiac gylcosides
Antihypertensives:what do sympatholytics do?
Block the effects of the symp NS.
<BP by stopping vasoconstrn and >HR caused by SNS.
Antihypertensives: what are other drugs?
Ca channel blockers:inhibit vasoconstrn(works on heart and vasc sm musc)
Nitrates: relax Vasc sm musc
Antihypertensives:ACE ihibitors
blocks ACE acting to make Ang II, prevents vasoconstrn
Antihypertensives: Diuretics
Act on kidney tubule to decrease water reabsorption.
different types: loop diures,
thiazide diures, K sparring diures(weak)
What can pharmacological intervention help with?
> force of heart contrn
>exrcn salt and h20
relax vasc sm musc
inhibit renin angiot system
How do cardiac gylcosides work?
by inhibiting Na/K channels.
> force and efficiency of heart
(slows hr giving >time for filling) (only used for CCF)
What are the classes of antiarrythmic drugs?
Class 1: Na channel blockers
Class 2: B-adrenorecep antags
Class 3:>durn of Action Pot
Class 4: Ca channel blockers
What can cause Angina?
Partial blockage of coronary arteries
Reduced bld flow thru cornary arteries as result of vasospasm
What factors effect Myocardial oxygen demand?
Heart rate
Ventricular wall stress
How do nitrates work?
Organic nitrates lead to NO prodn. which acts as:
potent vasoconstrictor, inhibit platelet aggrn, stops hardening of arteries.
What are the actions of nitrates?
direct vasodilators
< total periph resistance
< systemic Bp
used for hypert, angina, cardiac failure
Mechanism of action on nitrates?
taken up by endothelial cells of vessels, converted to NO, NO causes the relaxation of muscle = vasodlin
= < bp, < myoc o2 demand, < in preload and afterload.
Use of GTN in pulmonary hypertension?
Acts on ventilated alveoli, helps to dilate bld vessles in alveoli to reduce respiratory distress.
Routes of Admin of nitrates?
Patches(prophylaxis against angina)
Injection (AMI/ LVF)
What drugs can be used in MI?
Thrombolytics, antiplatelets
EG: streptokinase and aspirin
others:o2, ca antags, ACE inhibs, B recep antags
Heparin, when can it be used?
fast action, inhibits coagulation.
During pregnancy
after surgery to prevent clot
What are low weight heparins?
Small isolated from heparin. used at lower doeses, safer, longer acting.
EG enoxaparine
What does Wafarin do?
Prevents formation of venous thrombosis, and pulmonary thromboembolism.
What are fibrinolytics?
Used to dissolve blood clots.
catylase action of plasmin.
EG streptokinase
Hyperlipeademia, what drugs are used to treat this?
HMG Co A reductase inhibs(Statins:<choles synth)
Bile acid binding resins
Nicotinic acid derivs
Fibrates derivs
combination therapy
What kind of endocrine disorders are there?
ketoacidosis(alcoholic/ diabetic)
How do endocrine drugs help?
Repair a deficincy of specific hormone
Compensate for excess or inapprop effect of spec hormone
stimulat/block endocr response
What are the throid hormones, what effect do they have?
TSH-anterior pit;
Release hormones T3 and T4
affect metabolism, cardiac fn, growth, devel, energy.
Hyperthyroidism: describe
Most common cause= Graves disease = > T4 and TSH levels
due to overactive thyroid from >TSH levels.
S/S: >nervousnes, >irritated, >HR, >temp, weight loss, fatigue
Treatment of hyperthyroid states
Reduce levels of circulating hormone Via:
Blocking synth
Stopping iodine availability
EG Propythiouracil, surgical removal
Most common cause is body attacks thyroid gland
S/S Fatigue, weight gain, <temp, dry skin, constipation
Diag by >TSH levels
Treat by oral T4
Insulin dept Diabetes IDDM
Juvenile, early onset.
Autoimmune destruction of B cells: ie no insulin made
Possibly caused by viral infn followed by immune response agains pancreas.
Non-insulin dept Diabetes NIDDM
Primarily a disease of insulin resistance. ie insulin cannot get into cells.
Treatment NIDDM
Diet and excercise
Oral antidiabetes agents:
Sulphonyureas: Stim B cell in pancreas to > insulin secrn
Biguanides:Impair glu absorp from gut
Alpha Glucosidase inhibs:delay glu absorp in gut
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Occurs in Type 1 (IDDM) no insulin leads to hyperglyceamia in bld, cells cant get any so end up acidiotic from fat and protein catabolism.
Signs of Hyperglycemia
Thirst, Polyuria, dry skin, dry mucous membrane
ketone breath, confusion, coma
Treat: fluid, insulin admin
Alcoholic ketoacidosis: chronic abuse alcohol, low food intake, vomiting
Gylcogen depleted, so ketones produced as substitute. dehydration increases concentrn of counter reg hormones.
S/S nausea vomiting dizzy, fever,pain, dyspnea
What drugs can be included when talking about antimicrobials?
Antibacterials, Antifungals, Antivirals, Antihelmithics, Antiprotozoals
How do antimicrobials work?
-inhibiting cell wall synthesis
-inhibit protein synthesis
-inhibit topoisomerase
-interference with metabolic processes
What is the difference between bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal?
Bacteriostatic stop the synthesis of DNA, halting the reproduction. Bacteriocidal kill the bacteria by disrupting cell wall and membranes
What are three adverse reactions to antibacterials?
Superinfections(if all good bact killed from antibiotics, bad ones multiply++)
Hypersensitivity(Allergic rxns)
Resistance(microbes adapt to drugs)
How can bacteria decrease the action of antimicrobials?
-Enzymes:B-lactamase,breaks down part of anitbiotic
-Target site altered:drug cant bind,
-Efflux pump:intercell drug conc too low
-bypass pathways
How can the drugs be specific to bacteria and not harm human cells?
:non toxic to mammalian cells
:specific for structures only in bacteria
:differences in biochemical pathways
:cell walls in bact
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
-braod spectrum, semisynthetic,Gram+, some Gram-
B-lactam ring combines with enzy normally helping to biuld cell wall. ie stops synth cell wall.
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis 2
-braod spectrum
Gram+ and Gram-
Chem modification on B-lactam ring:gives vast array of cephs(1st, 2nd, 3rd generation)same action as pen
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis 3
Vancomycin-large molecules
Only Gram+(cant get thru -wall)
Bind to growing peptide chains of cell wall, stopping synthesis.
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Isolated from Streptomyces mould
Affect ribosomal subunits or nucleus: hence protein synthesis is affected.
3 types
Inhibition of protein synth 1
Bind to 50s ribosomal subunits:prevent rel of tRNA
eg erythromycin Gram - & +
low toxicity, used in patients allergic to penicillin
Inhibition of protein synth 2
Interfere with 30s sunbunits:misreading of mRNA
useful in treatment of sepsis.
ie Gram-, Streptomycin
adverse rxns:ototoxic, nephrotoxic
Inhibition of protein synth 3
prevent attachment of aa to ribosome
broad spec: Gram- and +
What are the criteria ideal for disinfectants and antiseptics?
-destructive to microbes, but non toxic to humans
-low incidence of hypersent rxns
-be active in presence of soaps
-be stable, non-corrosive, non-staining and inexpensive
Antiseptics: Oxidising
-Hydrogen peroxide 3%
fast acting, short lived
used for traumatic wounds,
also for contact lens cleaning
Antiseptics: Oxidising
antibact actions of gases when in contact with water
EG Chlorine: sodium hypochlorite
uesd to sterilise equpimt or wound irrigation
Antiseptics: Oxidising
kills bacteria, fungus and protozoa
used for minor wounds, on skin, for viral infections
Heavy metals
-Silver nitrate 1 %
bacteriocidal in contact with skin.
Used for eye, nose throat infn
-Zinc sulphate:nappy rash
Alkylating agents
-Formaldehyde-1-10%kills micorbes and spores in 1-6 hrs
also for disinfection of equpimt
preservation of biological material
Affecting cell permeability
Chlorhexidine (Hibiclens)
Both Gram - & +
disrupts cell membrane
used in surgey scrubs,hand washes, skin clenser, oral rinses
Poison if ingested or applied to open wounds
no skin contact if >2%
Ethanol:denatures proteins
70%: antiseptic
used for disinfn of instruments
preparation of skin
Antifungals (Antimycotics)
Inhibit sterol synthesis in fungal cell membr
interfers with permability and transport fns
3 Types of antifungals
difficult to treat
-inhibit uncoating
-interfere with rna/dna synth
-interfere with polymerase
-ihibit reverse transcriptase
3 types of Antivirals
Acyclovir- herpes simplex
AZT Zidovudine- HIV
3 types of Antiihelminthics
Mebendazole (Vermox)


Pyrantal (Combantrin)
3 major classes
Cell cycle non-specific
Cycle specific
Tissue specific
Name 5 drug types
Alkylating agents
Antitumor antibiotics
Mitotic inhibitors
What do plant alkaloids do?
periwinkle plant: act during mitosis
mandrake:increase degredation of DNA
what are some side effects of chemotherapy?
anaemias, neuropathies, sterility