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62 Cards in this Set

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Pharmacist
licensed pro prepares,dispenses**** drugs prescribed by health care provider knows drugs/interactions prevent harmful combos
specialize in units of measurement from ounces/liters/grams/kilograms equations/equivalencies
pharmacology discovery/development new meds prevents premature death improve quality life
pharmacology experimental science develop new drugs studying action biologically-active compounds on body/how body acts on them
greek word drug pharmakon study of action of drugs on living systems-human/animal
pharmacist=one qualified prepare/dispense drugs
drug=therapeutic effects everyday substances caffeine nicotine alcohol food additives chemicals in cosmetics
drug chemical effects on living organism drug=active ingredient delivered tabs injections inhalers
active ingredients mixed nonactive compounds make drug easier to take/water soluble
drug administered=active ingredient absorbed in blood stream carries active molecules around body
aspirin=active ingredient deposited tiny quantities sites effect blocking pain bring down temp/fever/inflammation
injection=delivers active ingredients in bloodstream rapid action needed general anesthetic
inhalers=asthma sufferers active drug packaged in small vaporizer delivers fine powders breathe into lungs acts immediately on obstructed tubes
once drug done its job body rids drugs converting into biologically inactive molecurles excreted by kidneys
drug activity=substances contain clusters of atoms molecules home in on specific target
target could be infectious bacterial
antibiotics or tumors with anti-cancer drugs have molecules on outside of their cells called receptors
drug molecule attracted to receptors attaches to them drug attacks invasive organism sitting on its cell surface interfering with function changing natural activity of receptor
penicillin attaches to targets prevents from forming protective cell wall once exposed bacteria collapses
ancient cultures used medicinal hervs minerals compounds extracted from animals for healing purposes
bark of willow tree source of aspirindried leaves of foxglove source of digitalis codeine from opium poppy morphine too
contraceptive from tropical climbing plant yam anticancer drug from periwinkle bark of Pacific yew tree Cyclosporins prevent transplant patients rejecting grafted organs from fungi
drugs from microbes in soil Streptomyces bacteria over 500 antibiotics 50 everyday use
sea natural drugs sponges corals mussel treatment for arthritis Conus snails venoms toxins cellular functions
scropions snakes south american frogs venoms processes of body ideas for new drugs
magic bullets chemicals in lab home in on precisely identified targets from infectious virus-blocked artery
genetics individual molecules molecular biology computer pharmacologist with chemist create new compounds try on computer
designer molecules speed up process only work on computer pursued in practice
learn from drug manufacturing ability of human body itself brain produces endorphins pain killers endorphin+inbuilt morphine non addictive
endorphins regulate appetite controlling mood = better pain relievers anti-anxiety drugs compounds prevent over/under eating
pharmacologist pursue from bassic research id targets to testing in animals and man to regulaltory filing medical info
12 years filing new drug patent to launch major new drug total cost up to 200 million
8000 compounds discovered investigated only one reaches marketplace once compound identified development phase lasting 6-7 years begins
effect of compound meassured on cells in test tubes (in vitro)animal studies (in vivo) taken clinical trials human volunteers carried out
preliminary confirmation effects of meds indicate administration potential med studied in patients with disease
confirms activity find dosage more trials by hospitals many countries 1000's patients establish efficacy safety of product
registration with regulatory authorites begin before license sell product mass of data required
improve quality of life prevent disease massive scale meds added3-5 years to average life expectancy
antibiotics/vaccines saved millions anesthetics muscle relaxants immunosuppressant compounds new surgery
malaria 300-500 million people each year kill 3 million people
Nurses responibility for drug control/administration registered staff nurses LPNs control of narcotic key
ALGES/O PAIN
BRONCH/O AIRWAY
COAGUL/O CLOTTING
FUNG/O FUNGUS
IMMUN/O IMMUNE
LIP/O FAT
PHARMAC/O DRUGS
SUB- UNDER
PHARMACODYNAMICS
study of way drugs act on cells*** specific cells target cells*** to cause thrapeutic response
drugs also reach/impose actions on other cells nontargeted cells sometimes good/no consequence/undesireable debilitating
these other actions side effects if weak/inconsequential
adverse reactions effects if undesirable severe
toxicity
severe undesirable response directly related to amount of drug administered correct amounts therapeutic desirable beneficial
pharmacokinetics

study how body manipulates drug
pharmacodynamics

study how drug manipulates body cells
pharmacokinetics*** movement of drug through body/how to get rid of drug/how does med get to infection site
4 processes of pharmacokinetics
absorption
distribution
metabolism
excretion****
variables influence absorption distribution metabolism excretion of drug age size*** wellness state
drug may be absorbed/circulated/store itself in fat more quickly in one than another
patients's ability to detoxify a drug and get it out of system is dependent on
state of liver and kidneys
FDA Food Drug Administration regulates quality purtiy potency effectiveness saftey labeling packaging of food drug cosmetic products
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration monitors manufacture distribution dispensing of controlled substances
Controlled Substances Act
controlled substances or schedule drugs
Shedule I Not considered to be legitimate for medical use in US

LSD heroin marijuana****
Schedule II: Acccepted medical use but high potential for abuse
****
morphine coccaine Demerol
Schedule III
Stimulants Depressants Narcotic Drugs Anabolic steroids Hallucinogenic substances
benzphetamine amobarbital LSD
Schedule IV
Less potential for abuse/addiction
Librium Valium Darvon****
Class V
small potential for abuse or addiction
Robitussin A-C Donnagel****
DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS
analgesics*** relieve pain
antipyretics reduce fever
anti-inflammatories**** reduce inflammatiton of tissues
ansesthetics*** to numb/desensitize
antifungal*** inhibit growth fungi
antibiotics*** control infection-causing microorganisms
antiemetics*** relieve nausea/vomiting
anihistamines opposes action of histamine
antihypertensives controls high blood pressure
antitussives controls coughing
calcium channel blocker**** treats hypertension angina abnormal heart rhythms
diuretics**** increases urine output
hypnotics**** induces sleep dulls senses
laxatives**** promotes emptying bowel contents
muscle relaxant relieves muscle tension
sedatives provide relaxing effect
vitamins used as dietary supplements
METHODS OF INTAKE
ORAL******
tablet enteric-coated tablet capsule timed-realease capsule lozenge troche suspension emulsion elixir syrup solution
Rectal*****
suppository
enema solution
injectable******
solution powder mixed with diluting solution intravenous IV push IV infusion IV piggyback intramuscular subcuaneous intradermal epidermal
Topical******
cream/ointment liniment dermal patch ENT drops eye ointment vaginal creams
douche solution buccal tablet sublingual tablet
INHALED****
spray or mist gas
4 NAMES APPLY TO VARIOUS TITLES OF DRUGS
Generic common name or general name assigned to drug never capitalized
Trade name
copyrighted name pharmaceutical company markets drugs
always capitalized
Chemical name
exact molecular formula of drug
Official name
drug as it appears in official references usually same as generic name
brand name drugs more expensive advertising/research promotong trade name
ingrediants usually exactly same
compare prices OTC
generic/brand name
Contraindictions*****
list of conditions for which drug should not be given
Indications*****
list of conditions for which drug meant to be used
generics trascribed in lower case
many drugs sound alike have different meanings
dosages sound alike 50 15
never guess consult reference book/site
Interactions
list of other drugs/foods may alter effect of drug or should not be taken while drug being used
Side Effects Adverse Reactions
list of unpleasant or dangerous effects of drug
Terms****
actions description of cellular changes occur as result of using drug
Cautions****
list of conditions types of patients warrant closer observation for side effects
DOSAGE AMOUNT OF DRUG GIVEN FOR PARTICULAR DESIRED EFFECT
Minimum dose*****
smallest amount possible achieve desired results
Maximum dose ****
largest amount possible to achieve diesired results without producing symptoms of toxicity
Loading dose*****
initial high dose used to quickly elevate the level in blood often followed by a series of lower maintenance doses
Maintenance dose****
dose required to keep blood level at steady state in order to achieve desired result
Toxic dose***
amnout of drug that will cause harmful side effect
Lethal dose ****
amount of drug that will cause death
Therapeutic dose****
dose ccustomarily given prescribed according to body weight
PHARMACOLOGY ABREVIATIONS (different font do not use)
a.c. before meals
ad lib as desired
a.m. morning
AQ aq. water
b.i.d. twice a day
cc (mL) cubic centimeter
DPT !!!!! (spell) diphtheria pertussus tetanus vaccine
H2O water
h.s. at bedtime
IU !!!!! (spell) internataional units
MAOI monozmine oxidase inhibitor anitdepressant drug
n.p.o. nothing by mouth
NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
O.D. (no) right eye
OTC over the counter
O.S. left eye
O.U. Each eye
p. after
p.c. after meals
p.o. by mouth
PDR Physicians Desk Reference
p.m. afternoon
p.r.n. as needed
q. every
q.a.m. every morning
q.d.!!!!! (spell) every day
qh. every hour
q.h.s. spell at bedtime/nightly
q.i.d. four times a day
q.o.d. spell every other day
q.p.m. every evening
q.4h. every four hours
q.8h. every eight hours
rx treatment/prescription/prescribe
sig. write on label
sol. solution
stat immediately
t.i.d. three times a day
V.O. verbal order
w with
x times/multiplied by
DRUG FORMS
cap capsule
elix elixir
qtt drop
sol solution
supp suppository
susp suspension
tab tablet
tinct. tincture
ung, oint. ointment
ROUTES
ID intradermal
IM intramuscular
IV intravenous
IVPB intravenous piggyback
PO p.o. oral
R rectal
SC subcu subq spell! subcutaneous
sl sublingual
T topical
WEIGHTS AND MEASUREMENTS
C Celsius
dL deciliter
dr dram
g gram
gr grain
gtt drop
F Fahrenheit
ft feet
h hr hour
kg kilogram
L liter
m min minim drop
mcg microgram
mEq milliequivalent
mg milligram
mg/dl milligram per deciliter
mill million
mL milliliter
mm millimeter
mmol millimole
oz ounce
pt pint
tsp t teaspoon
T tablespoon
qt quart