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67 Cards in this Set

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What is the mechanism of a direct cholinergic agonist?
Bind directly to a Nicotinic and/or Muscarinic rectorsep
What is the mechanism of a indirect cholinergic agonist?
They interact with acetylcholinesterase to increase concentration of Acetylcholine

(less specific so result in increased side effects)
What are the cholinergic agonist discussed in class?
* Bethanechol
* Carbachol
* Pilocaprine
* Physostigmine
* Neostigmine
* Edrophonium
* Pyridostigmine
* Organophosphate
What cholinergic agonist(s) are direct acting on Muscarinic receptors only?
* Bethanecol
* Pilocarpine
What cholinergic agonist(s) are direct acting on Nicotinic receptors only?
None
What cholinergic agonist(s) are direct acting on both Muscarinic and Nicotinic receptors only?
Carbachol
What cholinergic agonist(s) are indirect acting on both Muscarinic and Nicotinic receptors only?
* Physostigmine
* Neostigmine
* Edrophonium
* Pyridostigmine
* Organophosphates
What are the general Muscarinic effector organ responses?
General inhibition of heart, vasodilation, excitation of GI tract (increase motility, secretions), bronchoconstriction, miosis, urination (contract detrussor mm., relax sphincter), contract uterus, erection, increase pancreatic secretions, SLUDD – salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, death
What are the general Nicotinic effector organ responses?
Ganglionic transmission, muscle twitching, tremors leading to muscle paralysis
What type of drug is Bethanechol?
Direct muscarinic Cholinergic Agonist

* Resistant to degradation of acetylcholinesterase
What does Bethanechol do to esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter tone?
Increased esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter tone
What does Bethanechol do to the peristalsis and tone of the stomach and intestines?
Increased peristalsis and tone of stomach and intestines
What does Bethanechol do to gastric and pancreatic secretions?
Increased gastric and pancreatic secretions
What does Bethanechol do to the tone of detrusor muscle of the bladder and filling capacity of the bladder?
Increased tone of detrusor muscle of the bladder and decreased filling capacity
What type of drug is Carbachol?
A directing acting (muscarinic and nictonic) Cholinergic Agonist

* Impervious to cholinesterases
What does Carachol do to heart rate and blood pressure?
Transient lowered heart rate and blood pressure
What does Carachol do to salivation?
Hypersalivation
What does Carachol do to the peristalsis and tone of the stomach and intestines?
Increased peristalsis and tone of stomach and intestines
What does Carachol do to gastric and pancreatic secretions?
Increased gastric and pancreatic secretions
What does Carachol do to uterine muscles?
Contraction of Uterine muscle
What does Carachol do to the adrenal gland?
Cause adrenal gland to release epinephrine and norepinephrine
What type of drug is Pilocaprine?
Direct Muscarinic Cholinergic Agonist
What does Pilocaprine do to secretions from exocrine glands?
Increased secretions from exocrine glands
What does Pilocaprine do to pupils?
Miosis
What does Pilocaprine do to peristalsis and tone of stomach and intestines?
Increased peristalsis and tone of stomach and intestines
What type of drug is Physostigmine?
Indirect Cholinergic Agonist-Reversibly inhibits the destruction of acetylcholine by binding to acetylcholinesterase

***Crosses the blood brain barrier
What does Physostigmine do to the pupils?
Miosis
What does Physostigmine do to intra-ocular pressure?
Decreased intra-ocular pressure
What does Physostigmine do to bronchioles?
Bronchiole constriction
What does Physostigmine do to salivation?
Hypersalivation
What does Physostigmine do to muscles?
Muscle weakness
What does Physostigmine do to peristalsis and tone of the stomach and intestines?
Increased peristalsis and tone of stomach and intestines
What drug is used to combat Ivermectin and Anticholinergic toxicity?
Physostigmine
Physostigmine is a proactive agent for Narcolepsy in what species?
Proactive agent for Narcolepsy in Dogs and Horses
What type of drug is Neostigmine?
Indirect Cholinergic Agonist-

(Competes with Acetylcholine for acetylcholinesterase; causes accumulation of acetylcholine)
What does Neostigmine do to tone of intestinal and skeletal musculature?
Increased tone of intestinal and skeletal musculature
What does Neostigmine do to salivary and sweat glands?
Stimulation of salivary and sweat glands
Does Neostigmine cause bronchodilation or bronchoconstriction?
Bronchoconstriction
What does Neostigmine do to peristalsis and tone of the stomach and intestines?
Increased peristalsis and tone of stomach and intestines
What does Neostigmine do to the ureter?
Ureter constriction
What does Neostigmine do to heart rate?
Bradycardia
What is Neostigmine used to treat?
Treats myasthenia gravis
What type of drug is Edrophonium?
Indirect Cholinergic Agonist

(Short acting anticholinesterase agent; causes accumulation of acetylcholine)
What does the use of Edrophonium do to tone of intestinal and skeletal musculature?
Increased tone of intestinal and skeletal musculature
What does the use of Edrophonium do to salivary and sweat glands?
Stimulation of salivary and sweat glands
Does Edrophonium cause bronchoconstriction or bronchodilation?
Bronchoconstriction
What does the use of Edrophonium do to ureter?
Ureter constriction
What does the use of Edrophonium do to the pupils?
Miosis
What does the use of Edrophonium do to heart rate?
Bradycardia
What is Edrophonium used for to diagnose?
Diagnostic for Myasthenia Gravis
What type of drug is Pyridostigmine?
Indirect Cholinergic Agonist

(Long lasting anticholinesterase agent; causes accumulation of acetylcholine)
What does the use of Pyridostigmine do to tone of intestinal and skeletal musculature?
Increased tone of intestinal and skeletal musculature
What does the use of Pyridostigmine do to salivary and sweat glands?
Stimulation of salivary and sweat glands
Does the use of Pyridostigmine cause bronchoconstriction or bronchodilation?
Bronchoconstriction
What does the use of Pyridostigmine do to the ureter?
Ureter constriction
What does the use of Pyridostigmine do to the pupils?
Miosis
What does the use of Pyridostigmine do to heart rate?
Bradycardia
What is Pyridostigmine used to treat?
Treats Myasthenia Gravis
What type of drug is Organophosphate?
Indirect Cholinergic Agonist

(Irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase)
What are 3 common signs of use of an organophosphate?
Profuse salivation, vomiting, diarrhea
What does Organophosphate do to the GI tract?
Hypermotility of the GI tract
What does Organophosphate do to urination?
Causes urination
What does Organophosphate do to heart rate?
Bradycardia
What does Organophosphate do to blood pressure?
Hypotension
Does Organophosphate cause bronchoconstriction or bronchodilation?
Bronchoconstriction and increased bronchial secretions
What does Organophosphate do to muscles?
Muscle paralysis
What can be seen at toxic dosages of Organophosphate?
SLUDD (Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Death)