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17 Cards in this Set

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Manic-depression is also known as what
Bipolar disorder
What is the traditional drug of choice for treating manic-depression
Lithium
When is lithium used in the treatment of manic-depression (what phase of the disease)
Prevention and treatment of manic episodes
Does lithium have a narrow or wide therapeutic window
Narrow
Lithium is eliminated renally in a similar fashion to which other salt
Sodium
Is lithium toxicity exacerbated by low or high sodium plasma levels
Low sodium levels
What is the mechanism of action of lithium
Unknown; may decrease cAMP levels thereby decreasing its function as a second messenger; may inhibit dephosphorylation of IP3 to IP2 and IP2 to IP thereby interfering with the recycling of inositol
None
What are the adverse effects of lithium
Acne
Seizures
Visual disturbances
Edema
Ataxia
Drug-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Hypothyroidism
Tremors
None
How does lithium cause drug-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Uncoupling of the vasopressin V2 receptor in the kidney
Which diuretic is usually used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Thiazide diuretics
Which drug is used to treat lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Amiloride (thiazide diuretics cause increased reabsorption of lithium which may lead to lithium toxicity)
None
How does lithium cause hypothyroidism
Inhibition of 5’-deiodinase
What is 5’-deiodinase responsible for
Converting thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3)
What is the name of the cardiac anomaly that may be found in neonates born to mothers using lithium
Ebstein anomaly
What characterizes Ebstein anomaly
Malformation of the tricuspid valve leaflets (partly attached to the fibrous tricuspid valve annulus; partly attached to the right ventricular endocardium; inferior displacement of the tricuspid leaflets)
None
What other medications (mood stabilizers) may be used in the treatment of manic-depression
Carbamazepine
Valproic acid
Benzodiazepines
Gabapentin
Topiramate
None
Why are antidepressant agents not used to treat the depression phase of manic-depression
May cause patients to enter into the manic phase