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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Pharmacodynamics?
how the drug affects the tissue of the body.
What is the Dose Response Curve (DRC)?
shows how the effect of a drug changes over different doses.
Different effects have different DRC...
most drugs have a minimal and maximal effective dose...
maximal dose receives MAX effect. Minimal dose receives too little of a dose, no effect.
Potency vs Efficancy...
Potency is the amount of effect at a given dose and Efficiency measures maximum effect of a drug.
What is ED50?
What is LD50?
ED50 is median EFFECTIVE dose.
LD50 is median LETHAL dose.
What is the Therapeutic Index as a measure of a drug safety?
The Theraputic Index is the indicator of drug safety and is calculated by dividing the LD50/ED50.
LD50: 84
ED50: 36
TI: 84/36 = 2.33
The higher the TI the safer the drug.
SAFE TIs: >100
Why is the Theraputic Index not a good measure?
What is a more useful meaurement?
because the TI only accounts for death as a negatice side effect but there can be other side effects present such as impotence.
A more useful measurement is the therapeutic window.
What is the Therapeutic Window?
A more useful measurement of determining drug safety.
the range of dosage of a drug or of its concentration in a bodily system that provides safe effective therapy <the narrow therapeutic window … the effect may go from therapeutic to toxic with an increase of just 10 micrograms per milliliter [in] blood concentration —Lisa Davis>
What is the Nervous System?
The nervous system can be divided into the CENTRAL Nervous Systm and the PERIPHERAL Nervous System.
the system of nerves and nerve centers in an animal or human, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia.
Central Nervous System?
Peripheral Nervous System?
Makes up the Nervous System.
The CENTRAL Nervous System:
the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.
The PERIPHERAL Nervous System:
the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
What is the Hindbrain?
the Hindbrain is the brainstem.
the most posterior of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue, including the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata; rhombencephalon.
Medulla functions?
-Controls important bodily functions (Respiration, Heart Rate)
- area postrema (protects brain from toxins)
- exchanges sensory and motor (muscle) information with the spinal cord.
Cerebellum function?
-responsible for coordinated muscle movement
-responsible for "motor learning"
What are Pons?
infomation enters and exits throught pons(like a bridge)
Also called pons Varolii. a band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes of the midbrain, medulla, and cerebrum.
What is the Midbrain?
the middle of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue; mesencephalon.
Reticular Activating System?
Important for alertness.

the network in the reticular formation that serves an alerting or arousal function
Substantia Nigra?
Important for voluntary movement, black substance.
a deeply pigmented area of the midbrain containing dopamine-producing nerve cells.
Define 2:
A layer of large pigmented nerve cells in the midbrain that produce dopamine and whose destruction is associated with Parkinson's disease.
Parts of the Forebrain?
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Cerebral Cortex

Also called prosencephalon. the anterior of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate, or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue including the diencephalon and telencephalon.
exchanges information between cerebral cortex and deeper structures.
the middle part of the diencephalon through which sensory impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex.
(under) controls many hormonal and stress related functions. (hunger, thirst, and sex)
Link between nervous and endocrine system(hormaones).
Stress Hormone (adrenal gland).
Sex hormone
a region of the brain, between the thalamus and the midbrain, that functions as the main control center for the autonomic nervous system by regulating sleep cycles, body temperature, appetite, etc., and that acts as an endocrine gland by producing hormones, including the releasing factors that control the hormonal secretions of the pituitary gland.
Important for memory.
an enfolding of cerebral cortex into the lateral fissure of a cerebral hemisphere, having the shape in cross section of a sea horse.
Define 2:
A ridge in the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain that consists mainly of gray matter and has a central role in memory processes.
Cerebral Cortex?
-movement and Sensory enters
-mediates higher cognitions
the furrowed outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum of the brain, associated with the higher brain functions, as voluntary movement, coordination of sensory information, learning and memory, and the expression of individuality.
Divisions of the PNS? (Peripheral Nervous System)
Divisions of the Somatic Nervous System?
Sympathetic and parasymapthetic.
The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary movements in the body, such as those performed by the skeletal muscles (see muscular system). The somatic nervous system also includes the special nerve fibers that help keep the body in touch with its surroundings, such as those involved in touch, hearing, and sight.

Sympathetic and Parasymapathetic:
The autonomic system consists of two major divisions: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. These often function in antagonistic ways. The motor outflow of both systems is formed by two serially connected sets of neurons. The first set, called preganglionic neurons, originates in the brain stem or the spinal cord, and the second set, called ganglion cells or postganglionic neurons, lies outside the central nervous system in collections of nerve cells called autonomic ganglia. Parasympathetic ganglia tend to lie close to or within the organs or tissues that their neurons innervate, whereas sympathetic ganglia lie at a more distant site from their target organs. Both systems have associated sensory fibers that send feedback information into the central nervous system regarding the functional condition of target tissues. To view a figure depicting the difference in function between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Neurons vs Glial cells?
Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. Also called nerve cell.
Glial Cells:
Any of the cells making up the neuroglia, especially the astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and microglia.
Parts of a NEURON?
Dendrites, Cell Body, Axon, Myelin Sheath, Nodes of Ranvier.
A branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses from adjacent cells inward toward the cell body. A single nerve may possess many dendrites.
Cell Body:
the compact area of a nerve cell that constitutes the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm, excluding the axons and dendrites.
Cell Biology. the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
The usually long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
Myelin Sheath:
a wrapping of myelin around certain nerve axons, serving as an electrical insulator that speeds nerve impulses to muscles and other effectors.
Nodes of Ranvier:
A constriction in the myelin sheath, occurring at varying intervals along the length of a nerve fiber
Action Potential?
Action Potential:
A momentary change in electrical potential on the surface of a cell, especially of a nerve or muscle cell, that occurs when it is stimulated, resulting in the transmission of an electrical impulse.
Resting Membrane Potential?
Resting Membrane Potential:
The resting potential of a cell is the membrane potential that would be maintained if there were no action potentials, synaptic potentials, or other active changes in the membrane potential. In most cells the resting potential has a negative value, which by convention means that there is excess negative charge inside compared to outside. The resting potential is mostly determined by the concentrations of the ions in the fluids on both sides of the cell membrane and the ion transport proteins that are in the cell membrane. How the concentrations of ions and the membrane transport proteins influence the value of the resting potential is outlined below.
What causes the resting membrane potential?
The resting potential is mostly determined by the concentrations of the ions in the fluids on both sides of the cell membrane and the ion transport proteins that are in the cell membrane.
How can psychoactive drugs affect the action potential?
-topical anesthetics block voltage gated sodium channels (novacaine, lidocaine, cocaine)
-ethanol affects the membrane permeability
-lithium substitutes for Na+ or K+
Synaptic Transmission?
Chemical synapses are specialized junctions through which cells of the nervous system signal to one another and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands. Chemical synapses allow the neurons of the central nervous system to form interconnected neural circuits. They are thus crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They also provide the means through which the nervous system connects to and controls the other systems of the body. A chemical synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell is called a neuromuscular junction; this type of synapse is particularly well-understood.
Synaptic Cleft
At an archetypal chemical synapse, such as those found at dendritic spines, a mushroom-shaped bud projects from each of two cells and the caps of these buds press flat against one another. At this interface, the membranes of the two cells flank each other across a slender gap, the narrowness of which enables signaling molecules known as neurotransmitters to pass rapidly from one cell to the other by diffusion. This gap, which is about 20 nm wide, is known as the synaptic cleft.
Presynaptic Neuron (membrane) vs Postsynaptic Neuron (membrane)?
Only the so-called pre-synaptic neuron secretes the neurotransmitter, which binds to receptors facing into the synapse from the post-synaptic cell. The pre-synaptic nerve terminal (also called the synaptic button or bouton) generally buds from the tip of an axon, while the post-synaptic target surface typically appears on a dendrite, a cell body, or another part of a cell.
Are chemical messengers used by neurons.
-many diferent varieties of NTs
-NTs are stored in vesticles
Neurotransmitter Vesticle?
fuse with presynaptic membrane, NT released into synaptic cleft.