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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of what drugs do to the body and how they do it
4 reasons nurses need a basic understanding of pharmacokinetics
-educate pt & fam
-make PRN decisions
-evaluate pt for drug responses (beneficial/harmful)
-when questioning doctor about drug therapy- back up your reasoning with logic
largest effect a drug produces, indicated by height of dose-response curve
maximal efficacy
why is it not necessarily desirable to use a drug with a maximal efficacy
you want to match the intensity of reponse to the patients needs
amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect
difference between potency and maximal efficacy
one drug can be more effective although another can be more potent AND some drugs regardless of the potency achieve same level of effectiveness
special chemicals in the body that most drugs interact w/to produce effects
drug receptor
any functional macromolecule in a cell to which a drug binds to, to produce its effect
drug receptor
5 macromolecules, receptors or target molecules, where drugs may bind to cause a response
hormones,neurotransmitters, regulatory molecules, enzymes, ribosomes
produces or originating from w/in a cell or organism, concerning spore formation w/in bacterial cell
receptor are normal points of control of physiologic process
important properties of receptors & drug-receptors interactions
regulated by molecules supplied by the body
important properties of receptors & drug-receptors interactions
mimic or block body's own regulatory molecules
important properties of receptors & drug-receptors interactions
drug can't give cells new function, can only alter rate of pre-existing process
important properties of receptors & drug-receptors interactions
drugs can't make body do anything it isnt already capable of doing
important properties of receptors & drug-receptors interactions
meds simply help the body help itself
important properties of receptors & drug-receptors interactions
explain selectivity of a drug
drug will do what it is intended to/for w/o side effects
how does selectivity relate to potential side effects of drugs
if a drug is highly selective or more selective the less side effects
drug fits good w/receptor
good efficacy , good response
drug fits ok w/receptor
mild side effects
drug fits somewhat ok w/receptor
stronger side effects
intesity of response to drug proportional to number of receptors occupied by that drug
principle of simple occupancy theory of drug-receptor interaction
maximal response will occur when all available receptors have been occupied
principle of simple occupancy theory of drup-receptor interaction
two terms related to assumptions of the modified occupancy theory
affinity & intrinsic activity
the strength of the attraction between a drug & its receptor
ability of drug to activate the receptor following binding
intrinsic activity
drugs with a high affinity for a receptor
drugs w/high infinity are very potent
drugs with a high intrinsic activity
drugs w/high intrinsic activity have maximal efficacy
molecules that activate receptors
finds receptor and does something good
mimic bodys own regulatory molecules
drug binds to receptor & no effect, or prevents something from being done
produce their effects by preventing receptor activation by endogenous regulatory molecules & drugs
an agonist that has only moderate intrinsic activity
partial agonist
the maximal effect that a partial agonist can produce
lower than that of a full agonist
in terms of modified occupancy theory, an agonist is
a drug that has both affinity & high intrinsic activity
affinity allows agonist to
bind to receptors
intrinsic activity allows the bound agonist to
activate/turn on receptor function
in terms of modified occupancy theory, an antagonist is
a drug that has inifinity but no intrinsic activity
affinity allows antagonist to
bind to receptors
a bound antagonists lack of intrinsic activity prevents
the bound antagonist from causing receptor activation
type of response an antagonist may cause if no agonist is present or active
administration of an antagonist will have no observable effect, the drug will bind to receptor but nothing will happen
can act as agonist as well as antagonist
partial agonist
partial agonist acts as an agonist when
it's given alone, note it provides only moderate intrinsic activity (relief)
partial agonist acts as an antagonist when
replaces a full agonist attached to the receptor, because partial agonist dose was larger
when partial agonist replaces the full agonist it
acts like an agonist by only giving moderate relief and an antagonist by blocking the full agonist from giving high degree of relief
drugs with a high therapeutic index
are safe
another way drugs may cause an action if they dont bind to receptors
some drugs act thru simple physical/chemical interactions w/other small molecules rather than receptors
a measure of a drugs safety
therapeutic index
LD50 (avg lethal dose)
the dose that is lethal to 50% of animals treated
drugs with a low therapeutic index
are not safe
ED50 (avg effective dose)
the dose that is required to produce a defined therapeutic response in 50% of the population
a narrow therapeutic range would indicate a
low therapeutic index
a wide therapeutic range would indicate a
high therapeutic index