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8 Cards in this Set

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Concentrated, aqueous preparations of a sugar or sugar-substiture with or without added flavoring agents and medicinal substances.

Ingredients-Contain: water, medicinal agents, sugar, antimicrobial preservatives, flavorants, colorants

Preparation-1.) Solution with the aid of heat 2.) Solution by agitation without heat 3.) Addition of sucrose to a prepared medicated liquid 4.) By percolation
Syrup
What is it-Clear, sweetened, hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral use, and usually flavored to enhance6 their palatability.

Ingredient-Contain: water-alcohol mixtures, sweetners (sucrose, sucrose-syrup, artificial sweetner), flavorants,

Preparation-Usually prepared by simple solution with agitation and/or by the admixture of two or more liquid ingredients. The alcohol/water soluble components are dissolved seperately first, then the aqueous solution is added to the alcoholic solution to maintain the highest possible alcoholic strength at all times.From a manufacturing standpoint, elixirs are preferred over syrups because they are prepared by simple solution.
Elixir
What is it-Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions prepared from vegetable materials or from chemical substances

Ingredient-Contain: non-volatile solute

Preparation-If the drug is a plant: can be made either by Maceration or Percolation. If the drug source is a chemical: made by simple solution. Prepared from EXTRACTIVES.
Tincture
What is it-Oleaginous or aqueous solutions in the form of coarse droplets or as finely divided solids to be applied topically, most usually to the nasal-pharyngeal tract or to the skin
Spray
What is it-A saturated solution of volatile solutes (aromatic in nature) in water. Solutes may either be liquid or solid. (Most solutes are liquids)


Preparation-1.) Distillation method 2.) Solution method (utilize a large excess of solute to ensure the water's saturation
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Aromatic Water
What is it-Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances and are employed pharmaceutically as flavoring agents and medicinally for the therapeutic value of the solute. Often called "essences"

Ingredient- contain a greater concentration of volatile oil than in Aromatic waters due to the presence of alcohol.

Preparation-1.) Simple solution (simply dissolve the oil in alcohol--afterwards usually filtrated to obtain sparkling clear product) 2.) Solution with maceration
Spirits
What is it-Alcoholic or oleaginous solutions or emulsions of various substances intended for external application to the skin with rubbing.

Ingredient-Alcoholic/hydroalcoholic-->useful for rubefacient, counterirritatn or penetrating action. Oleaginous-->useful for massage (less irritating than alcoholic liniments)

Preparation-Oleaginous-->solvent may be a fixed oil (i.e. almond, peanut, sesame) or a volatile substance, or it may be a combo of both.
Liniments
Ingredient-Castor oil-->makes product flexible. Camphor-->makes the product waterproof.

Preparation-Prepared by adding 2% camphor and 3% of castor oil to collodion.
Flexible Collodions