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36 Cards in this Set

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Start codon
AUG
Stop codon
UAA
UAG
UGA
"Wobble hypothesis"
-can occur at the 5' anticon to the 3' condon
-tRNA anticodon can pair with up to 3 differnet codons for the same amino acid
A-U or I
G-C or U
C-G or I
U-A or I or G
Silent mutation
no change in amino acid sequence
Missence mutation
changes in amino acid sequence
nonsence mutation
formation termination codon
Frameshift mutation
insertion or deletion of a single nucelotide.
-reading frame ultered from pt of mutation till termination codon reached.
Point mutation
form or destroy terminatio codon resulting in a premature termination or (readthrough" of termination codon.
Aminoacylation of tRNA
aminoacyl-tRNA transferase

enzyme+aa+ATP
to enzyme-aminoacyl-AMP +PPi(1)

enzyme-aminoacyl-AMP + tRNA to
enzyme + aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP (2)
Eukaroyotes
monomer size
80s

SMALL SUBUNITS
40s
34 protein
18s RNA

LARGE
60 S
50 protein
28S, 5.8S 5S RNAs
Prokaryotes
monomer
70s
SMALL UNIT
30s
21 proteins
16s RNA

LARGER subunit
50s
34 protein
23s, 5s RNA
eIF2a
binds to GTP and met-tRNA^met
formoning a ternary complex
-causes association w/ IF3 and blocks 6o s association (antissociation)
EF-1a
correct aminoacyl-tRNA is enhanced
-EF-1a, EF-1, first form a tenary complex w/ aminoacyl-tRNA and GTP.
-The EF-1a-aminoacyl-tRNA-GTP complex binds to the ribosomeand if the codon/anticodn are correct, the aminoacyl-tRNA is placed at the A-site, GTP is hydrolized, and EF-1a GDP complex dissociates.
EF-2
translocase
-move the mRNA and dipeptidyl-tRNA in the anticodon-codon register, from the 40s (A site) to the (P site).
-GTP is hydrolyzed
-A site vacant
-Dipeptidyl-t-RNA moves to the (P site), the deacylated donor (methionine) tRNA also moves to the (E site) on the 60S
A-site
aminoacyl-tRNA specified by the next codon of the mRNA bond to acceptor, aminoacyl, or A site
P site
the initiating methionyl-tRNA is placed in position so that its methionyl residue can be transfered (or donated) to the free alpha group of the amino group of the incomming aminoacyl-tRNA.
donar, peptidyl or P site
E site
anticodon of the deacylated tRNA remains in the 40S P site, and its acceptor end located in the 60s exit or E site.
mitochodrial protein syn
-circular DNA genome
encodes fro 13 proteins
22 tRNA
12S and 16S rRNA
enzymes-
RNA ploymerase
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
tRNA and ribosomes
initiation codon
fmet-tRNA^met
UGA-tryptophan
AUA-methionone
AGA and AGG stop
proteins are endodes in nuclear DNA
-synthesized in the cytosol and imported into organelle.
Streptomycin
initiation and elogation
30s sudunit
neomycins
translation
multiple site
tetracycin
aminoacyl-tRNA binding
30s or 40s
puromycin
peptide transfer
70s and 80s
erthromycin
translocation
50s
Fusidic acid
translocation
EF-G (Euk)
Cycloheximide
Elongation
80s (Euk)
Ricin
Multiple
60s (euk)
Signal peptide
at or near the amino terminus
-positivly charged N-rgion
-serves as a cleavage site for excision of a signal peptide.
Carbo's used fro glycosylation
mannose
NANA
GlcNAc
galactose
fucose
N-linkage
amide nitrogen of asparagin
-specific sequence is required AsnXTHr
-glycosylation rxn occurs "contranslationally"
-dolichol phosphate- lipid attached to the ER where oligosaccharides are initially assembled.
O-linked
hydroxyl serine or theronine
-occurs only on foilded proteins
-no specific sequence necessary
-residues must be on the protein surface
target proteins to mitochondria
-syn in the cytosol as prepproteins
-N-terminal seq have a (+) charged amphilillic alpha-helix theat is recognized by mitochondria receptor.
-proteins transported across the membrane in the unfolded state w/ the help of chaperones.
- translocation across the membrane requires energy
-protease removes the matrix targeted protein
to nucleus
nuclear translocation signal includ a cluster of basic aa
-carrier proteins (importins) mediate transport through cylindrial nuclear pore complex
target proteins to more an one place
-suboptimal location signal can lead to dual location
-gene duplication resultin in similar gene products w/ different targeting sequences.-alternative splicing of mRNAs
-alternative translocation initiation.
Posttranscriptional
RNA degradation
half-life varry from min. to hrs
-poly-a tail and cap
-PABP-binding protein protects mRNA from degradation.
-deadenylases-progressive removal of poly-A tail
-decapping enzyme removes 5' cap when the tail is < 10 nucleotides long.
Posttranscriptional
RNA interferance
DsRNA can lead to sequence-specific degradation of homologous mRNA sequence.
Posttranscriptional
control of translation initation
under control nutrient starvation, heat shock, or viral infection, eIF2a is phosphorylated and binds elF2a tightly making it unavailable fro initation.