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35 Cards in this Set

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Antacids
Sedative and Antisecretory agents
Increase gastric emptying
Digestants
What are the major group involved in treating stomach acid and digestion?
Peptic ulcer
Heartburn (may increase tone of lower esophageal sphincter)
What are the therapeutic uses of antacids?
systemic
nonsystemic
What are the 2 major kinds of antacids?
Systemic antacids
i.e. sodium bicarbinate - not commonly prescribed by physician because may cause systemic alkalosis and electrolyte imbalance.
muscular
glandular
GI medications affect _______ and/or _________ tissue of GI tract either DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY via ANS.
Nonsystemic antacids
form insoluble products and are not absorbed systemically. Neutralize hydrogen ion.
Aluminum compounds
Calcium compounds
Magnesium compounds
What are the 3 compounds that are Nonsystemic antacids?
Aluminum
stimulate

(nonsystemic antacids)
_________ compounds (Rolaids) and calcium compounds (Tums). Calcium may actually _________ more acid production later (excessive milk drinking is NOT a good idea.)
Nonsystemic
Magnesium compounds.

systemic or nonsystemic antacids?
diarrhea (Mg) and constipation (Al and Ca)
What are the side effects of Nonsystemic antacids?
Antacids
Caution:
_________ alter absorption of many drugs. Particularly important if kidney or liver disease.
Sedative or Antisecretory agents
inhibit secretion by different mechanisms
H2 antagonists
Anticholinergic drugs
Prostaglandins
Proton pump inhibitors
What are the Sedative or antisecretory agents?
inhibit gastric secretion
What is the mechanism of action of H2 antagonists?
Prostaglandins
Reduces acid, increases mucus secretion. Contraindicated in pregnancy (miscarriage has occured).
Proton Pump inhibitors
short term use (4-8 weeks)

Directly diffuses into gastric epithelium to suppress acid secretion.
relaxes pylorus and stimulates motility

relieves heartburn and nausea caused by gaseous distention

seems to increase sensitivity to Ach.
What is the mechanism of action when you increase gastric emptying?
ulcer
H2 antagonists
Older _______ treatments focused on antacids. Best to use antacids 7 times per day at 1 and 3 hours after each meal and at bedtime. Hot quite as effective as ____ ____________, but not as much rebound ulceration.
Since the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is present in the majority of the ulcer cases, therapy should includeuse of (1) an antisecretory agent, especially an H2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor (2) Bismuth (Pepto Bismol) to reduce bacterial adherence to mucosal cells and damage bacterial cell walls (3) at least 2 antibiotics to avoid resistance.

Recent study shows that aspirin makes bacterium more susceptible to antimicrobial agents.
What is the modern ulcer therapy?
modern ulcer therapy
Since the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is present in the majority of the ulcer cases, therapy should includeuse of (1) an antisecretory agent, especially an H2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor (2) Bismuth (Pepto Bismol) to reduce bacterial adherence to mucosal cells and damage bacterial cell walls (3) at least 2 antibiotics to avoid resistance.

Recent study shows that aspirin makes bacterium more susceptible to antimicrobial agents.
Digestants
Most no longer considered effective

Includes acids and enzymes. PANCREATIC ENZYMES are still considered useful.
Emetics
Antiemetic
What are the drug groups that CONTROL vomiting?
Emetics
cause vomiting (ipepcac)

1. Therapeutic uses - poisoning
2. Caution - with some poisons, vomiting is contraindicated
Antiemetic
vomiting reflex often stimulated by GI irritation or CNS irritation in vomiting center (which is a chemoreceptor trigger zine)
Antiemetic
Local _________ relieves irritation, i.e. antacid carminatives (relieve gas)
Local
_______ antiemetic relieves irritation, i.e. antacid carminatives (relieve gas)
Systemic
_________ antiemetics usually depress vomiting center in medulla.
a. Phenothiazines
b. antihistamines
c. Tetrahydrocannabinol
a. Phenothiazines
b. antihistamines
c. Tetrahydrocannabinol
What are the different types of systemic antiemetics?
Phenothiazines
What systemic antiemetic is one that is more effective?
antihistamines
What systemic antiemetic would you use if the cause was motion sickness (use prior to onset of symptoms)?
Tetrahydrocannabinol
What systemic antiemetic is the active ingredient in marijuana?
Tetrahydrocannabinol
What systemic antiemetic is often useful if nausea due to chemotherapy?
Tetrahydrocannabinol
What systemic antiemetic's main value is with those patients who DO NOT RESPOND to other antiemetics?
True
True or false?

Patients who DO respond to other antiemetics usually prefer that to the THC. They get the same relief, but THC's side effects are bothersome.
drowsiness
dry mouth, tachycardia
dizziness, inability to concentrate, disorentation
anxiety, depression, paranoia, manic psychosis, visual hallucinations.
What are the side effects for THC?