Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/21

Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
antiepileptic agents
What is the name of the agent that treats seizure disorders?
antiepileptic agents
aka anticonvulsants drugs

many general depressants

abnormal activity in spots in brain
Control seizures without adverse (CNS) side effects (impairment of CNS function).

At one time theory recommended combination of drugs to minimize side effects but now, single agents are more commonly selected and used depending upon the type of seizures.
What is the treatment goal for epilepsies?
treatment goal for epilepsies
Control seizures without adverse (CNS) side effects (impairment of CNS function).

At one time theory recommended combination of drugs to minimize side effects but now, single agents are more commonly selected and used depending upon the type of seizures.
sedation
kidney and liver damage
blood diseases
What are the most frequent adverse effects for antiepileptic agents?
sedation
locomotor and mental activity depressed
blood diseases
anemia

depresses WBC production

skin rashes and sore throat indicate difficulties developing normal WBC's.
kidney and liver damage

blood diseases
What are the adverse effects when taking a antiepileptic agent chronically?
Parkinsonism
___________ is a neurological disorder of CNS. Occurs later in life (after age of 50) due to deterioration of cells in brain. On million people in US have this.
symptoms of parkinsonism
motor

rigity, tremors of hands and head - individual moves slowly and stiffly, advance stages: drooling, speech slurring, face mask-like, shuffling walk.
brain damage (lack of o2)

drugs

genetically
How are the symptoms of parkinsonism caused by?
Ach
dopamine
dopamine
dominates
Motor activity involves 2 transmitters in the brain: __________ (acts as a stimulator of motor pathways) and __________ (acts as a inhibitor)

Normally, Acetylcholine and dopamine establish a balance. In Parkinson's disease Acetylcholine __________ dopamine.
Levodopa (increase dopamine)

Anticholinergic drugs (bring Ach in balance with dopamine
What are the 2 ways that parkinson's can be treated?
Levodopa
almost dopamine

large amounts orally

replenish stores of dopamine in brain
Levodopa
Side effects of what drug?

abnormal movements of body and face (jerking shoulders, pelvis, head, grimacing, drooling, etc.) G.I. (nausea), cardiovascular (palpitation, arrythmias, BP increased or decreased, orthostatic hypotension common, may aggrevate narrow-angle glaucoma).
anticholinergic drugs

(parkinson's disease)
brings Ach in balance with dopamine
anticholinergic drugs
blocks muscarinic receptors in brain. Some antihistamines are used for their anticholinergic effect because they are less likely to cause confusion or insomnia (good only for mild cases or in combination). Useful as adjunct anytime during treatment.
false

SLOWLY
Withdrawl of all Parkinson's medications must be done quickly or condition will worsen markedly.


True or false?
levodopa with carbidopa
What is the current drug of choice for antiparkinsonian?
levodopa
less
effectiveness
Some physicians save _________ for severe cases, but this practice may change:

a. amentadine and anticholinergic drugs have _____ severe side effects

b. levodopa appears to lose ___________ over period of years. (after 5 years, 75% of patients have some difficulty with the medication's effectiveness, or side effects, or both..)
Carbidopa
Carbidopa
dopamine
mentally
Currently, levodopa is given with _________. _________ prevents conversion of levodopa to _________ peripherally but not centrally, i.e. greatly decreases some of the side effects of levodopa use (especially anorexia, nausea, and vomiting). Earlier treatment may enable patient to be more physically and _______ active.