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31 Cards in this Set

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Withdrawl syndrome
Synonymous with physical dependence?
dependence
extremes
In reality, __________ causing drugs are usually both types at the same time (physical and psychological dependent). They are on a continuum btwn the 2 ________ with some features of both.
False

it is not synonymous
Degree of physical dependence is synonymous with the degree of addiction.

True or false?
substances which generally increase the excitability of the CNS.
Define CNS stimulants.
CNS stimulants
substances which generally increase the excitability of the CNS.
Amphetamines
stimulates all areas of the brain
Increased alertness, wakefulness, decreased fatigue

Mood elevation or euphoria, increased initiative

Decreased apetite, but little effect in reducing food intake if eating for psychological reasons.
What are the Responses observed upon administration for amphetamines?
Responses observed upon administration for amphetamines
Increased alertness, wakefulness, decreased fatigue

Mood elevation or euphoria, increased initiative

Decreased apetite, but little effect in reducing food intake if eating for psychological reasons.
alertness
euphoria
Decreased
Increased _________, wakefulness, decreased fatigue

Mood elevation or __________, increased initiative

________ apetite, but little effect in reducing food intake if eating for psychological reasons.
Increases the release of NE in the brain (responsible for CNS stimulation) also, increase dopamine release (causes side effects)
What is the mechanism of action for amphetamines?
a. Narcolepsy
b. Weight control
c. *** ADHD - ritalin
What are the therapeutic uses for amphetamines?
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
Hyperkinetic children is related to what disorder?
Ritalin
What specific drug is most prescribed for ADHD?
Amphetamines
What drug group has the therapeutic use for ADHD?
Stimulants
Are Amphetamine stimulants or depressants?
Increase NE release which increase attention span of child.

Increase dopamine too
What are the mechanisms of action in ADHD drugs?
Side effects or toxic effects for amphetamines
a. CNS - nervousness, anxiety, sleeplessness

High dose - schizophrenic behavior (increased dopamine), hallucinations, paranoia, psychoses, dependence

b. cardiovascular - increased BP and HR, and possibly arrhythmias

c. weight loss and malnutrition

d. *** hyperkinetic children - sleeplessness, excessive crying, etc.
**** suppresses growth (reversible if quit before bone closure- when off drug, child grows more)

e. very rare - bone marrow suppression
Insomnia or psychological disorders (suicidal, schizophrenia, etc)

Hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias

Anorexia
What are the contraindications for amphetamines?
contraindications for amphetamines
Insomnia or psychological disorders (suicidal, schizophrenia, etc)

Hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias

Anorexia
potential for abuse

drug interactions: anticholinergics, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants
What are the cautions for amphetamines?
supresses growth in ADHD children
What is the most important side effect for amphetamines?
cautions for amphetamines
potential for abuse

drug interactions: anticholinergics, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants
Xanthines
more stimulants

caffeine
theobromine
theophylline

Minimal therapeutic uses

From plants found all over the world
coffee beans
tea leaves
kola nuts
Where is caffeine found?
tea leaves
Where is theophylline found?
cocoa
Where is theobromine found?
100-150
How many mg of caffeine is found in coffee?
40-100
How many mg of caffeine is found in tea?
35-55
How many mg of caffeine is found in coke?
Responses observed for Xanthines
a. cns stimulation- increased alertness, decreased fatigue caffeine > theophylline > theobromine (not very active stimulant)

b. cardiac stimulant - caffeine > theophylline > theobromine

c. constricts BV in brain - coffee may help with headache (if cause if dilated BV)

d. diuresis
caffeine > theophylline > theobromine

e. ***bronchiorelaxation (requires larger dose than CNS effect)
caffeine > theophylline > theobromine
aminophylline
a more water soluble version of theophylline

used for asthma