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14 Cards in this Set

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patient
effectiveness
active
respond
Learn to treat each _______: Summarization of how individual patient differences can affect drug ___________ and drug dosage required (i.e. can affect the amount of drug reaching the ______ site, and/or the abiity of the active site to _________.)
Age
infant
aged
infant
immature hepatic and renal systems, inconsistent GI motility, and incomplete development of blood-brain-barrier
aged
deterioration of hepatic and renal systems, also cardiovascular disease.
Weight
dosage based upon amount/kg body ________ or upon surface area.

Especially critical for children. They are NOT small adults.
Sex
size difference
amount of fat vs. water
pregnancy
nursing
Age
Weight
Sex
Environment
Physiological, pharmacological, or pathological state
Genetic
Assess the predrug status of the individual.
What are some some other conditions or issues affecting drug responses?
physical environment
temp. (causes vasoconstriction or vasodilation)

altitude
psychosocial issues (environment)
Sensory distribution from problem

Placebo effect

Compliance issues (ease of use, cost, patient responsibility)
physiological state
diurnal rhythms, hormone secretions, water/electrolyte/acid-base balance
pharmacological state
other medications, drug abuse history, tobacco or alcohol use (P450)
Pathological state
hepatic, renal, or cardiovascular disease

special cases:

fever (+ aspirin)
infection (+ insulin)
Pulmonary disease (+anesthetics)
Genetic
deficiencies or excesses in enzymes and drug metabolism

-some blacks more sensitive to sulfonamides

-some individuals metabolize seizure medications 4X faster than others do.

inherited drug receptor disorders (insulin)
Assess the predrug status of the individual
helpful especially in areas that might be affected by the drug (+or-)

needed to monitor drug effectiveness and drug toxicities.