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27 Cards in this Set

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Theories of drug action
Drugs DO increase or diminish normal functions of tissues or organs.

Drugs DO NOT cause different functions to occur.
do
do not
Drugs ____ increase or diminish normal functions of tissues or organs.

Drugs ___ cause different functions to occur.
Drugs DO increase or diminish normal functions of tissues or organs.

Drugs DO NOT cause different functions to occur.
What are the theories of drug action?
receptor
A macromolecule with which a drug interacts to produce a characteristic biological response.
drug-receptor complex
Drug + receptor = ____________ _______.
active site
altered
When the drug fits the shape of the _______ ____ of the receptor, a complex is formed which causes ______ cell activity.
transport of ions or molecules

enzymes activation or deactivation

protein synthesis

release of hormones or transmitter
What are some biological responses that the drug-receptor complexes cause?
ions
enzymes
synthesis
transport of _____ or molecules

_______ activation or deactivation

protein _________

release of hormones or transmitters
cell membranes (usually requires second messengers such as cAMP or Ca++)

enzymes or other cell components (including DNA)

for most drugs, we don't actually know.
Where are the receptors located?
cell membranes
(usually requires second messengers such as cAMP or Ca++)
Both...it depends upon the drug.

Those that stimulate are classified as AGONISTS.

Those that inhibit are classified as ANTAGONISTS.
Does a drug stimulate or inhibit normal receptor activity?
AGONISTS
Drugs that stimulate are classified as ________.
ANTAGONISTS
Drugs that inhibit are classified as __________.
numbers of receptors occupied

affinity(likeness or bond) of drug for the receptor
How is the strength of drug's reaction determined? (2)
Agonist
Compound which increases or intensifies the activity of a receptor.
Partial agonist
Compound which increases or intensifies the activity of a receptor, but is less effective (even when all of the receptors are occupied) and can decrease their effectiveness when in competition with them for the same receptor sites.
increases
effectiveness
Compound which __________ or intensifies the activity of a receptor, but is less effective (even when all of the receptors are occupied) and can decrease their ____________ when in competition with them for the same receptor sites.
Antagonist
Compound which decreases the activity of the receptor or prevents an agonist from acting on a receptor.
Competitive antagonist
Compound that bind to the same site on a receptor as an agonist. Effects are reversible by competition with the agonist.
Can use agonist and competitive antagonist to control exact degree of response.
What is the advantage of a competitive antagonist?
Noncompetitive antagonist
Compound that binds to a different part of the receptor than an agonist but still prevents normal agonist action. Cannot be displaced by competition from agonist.
Can block an effect no matter what the concentration of the agonist.
What is the advantage of the noncompetitive antagonist?
Receptor theory
What are the structurally specific drugs?
Structurally nonspecific drugs
i.e. drug actions are NOT mediated by receptors; some examples (usually simple physical or chemical reactions)

1. Volatile anesthetics
2. Antacids
3. Emollients
4. Osmodiuretics
5. Complexes to remove ions or compounds -EDTA for lead poisoning
Volatile anesthetics
dissolve in membrane and decrease nerve conduction (no specific receptor)
Osmodiuretics
mannitol

filter into tubule and pulls water with it. Some laxatives work similarly (MgSO4)
Complexes to remove ions or compounds -
EDTA for lead poisoning