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128 Cards in this Set

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Pharmacodynamics
Study of biochemical and physiological effects of drugs
Buzz connection for pharmacodynamics
Dynamics = Drug Mechanism
What is the study of drug mechanisms of action?
pharmacodynamics
What is the study of pharmacokinetics concerned with?
The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs
What is is the term that is related to the concentration of drugs in the body....how much is in the body...how long they take to break down
pharmacokinetics
What is the science concerned with history, sources, physical & chemical properties of drugs and way they effect living systems?
Pharmacology
Pharmacology is concerned with the property of drugs and what else?
The way they effect living systems
This is the division of pharmacology that is the study of how drugs are used in the treatment of illness.
Pharmacotherapeutics
This is the division of pharmacology that decides which drug to use and which dose to use.
Pharmacotherapeutics
This is the study of herbal and natural sources of drugs
Pharmacognosy

SOURCES of drug - pharmacognoSY
This is the study of making synthetic versions from natural sources
Pharmacognosy
This is the division of pharmacology that is specifically concerned with poisons and poisoning.
Toxicology
There are four major sources of drugs. What are they?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Natural Sources
2. Semi-synthetic produced
3. Synthetically produced
4. Biotechology
Speaking of drug sources, this source includes chemical reactions in a laboratory.
Synthetically produced
Speaking of drugs sources, this includes insulins from animals and kaopectate from clay.
Natural sources
Drug sources:

Digitoxin from plants
Natural sources
Drug sources:

Some human insulin products
Semi-synthetic produced
Drug sources:

made in a lab so it is very pure
Synthetically produced
Drug sources:

Natural sources that are chemically modified
Semi-synthetic produced
Drug sources:

Manipulation of proteins, gene splicing
Biotechnology
Drug sources:

HGH, hep-b vaccine
Biotechnology
Drug sources:

Permits the large scale industrial production
Biotechnology
Drug sources:

Synthroid
Synthetically produced
What are the six major sources of uses of drugs?
Symptomatic treatment
Preventative drugs
Diagnostic drug
Curative drugs
Health maintenance
Contraceptive drug
Give an example of a drug that is used for symptomatic treatment.
aspirin to relieve fever
Example of a drug usage:

Helps the doctor determine if a disease is present
diagnostic drugs
Examples of this type of drug usage include vitamins and minerals
preventative drugs
Examples of this type of drug usage include vaccines
preventative drugs
Examples of this type of drug usage include antibiotics
curative drugs
Examples of this type of drug usage include anti hypertensive
health maintenance
What makes a tablet the most popular, easiest to administer drug form?
it can be scored or unscored for easy division, and it is easily swallowed
If a drug is enteric, what does that mean?
It is coated. It prevents disolve in the stomach, but lets the drug bypass to the small intestine for disolving.
Why would you not want to chew an enteric coated drug?
Can irritate the stomach, or chemically alter the drug....(stomach has a low ph)
What is an important thing to avoid when administering an enteric drug?
milk or antacids..same ph problem as in the stomach
This drug form has localized drug effect in the mouth and is a drug that is better distributed in the stomach.
Chewable tablets
This drug form is placed in the inner cheek and is disolved in the mouth
Buccal
This drug form is enclosed, sometimes in gelatin, and it disolves in the stomach in 10 to 20 minutes.
capsules they can be hard or soft
What is the difference between hard and soft capsules?
hard have two sides that can be opened by nurse and put in food or in tube

soft have liquid med or beads of med that release drug at different times...sustained release action. Don't break SOFT open.
This type of drug form disolves slowly in mouth.
troches
This drug form is also called an antiseptic or antistetic.
Troches
Suppository is inserted into body orifice and has a ____________ effect, or may ________________________.
Localized affect or may enter the blood stream
Clear liquid that contains a solvent. DRUG FORM
Solution

SOLVENT - SOLUTION
Sweetened solution used to mask bad tasty drugs. Diabetics need to have the sugar free form. DRUG FORM
Syrup
Liquid drug form that contains alcohol.
Elixir
Another term for Eye Solution
Ophthalmic
Another term for Ear Solution
Otic
Solution for a body cavity
Douche
Liquid drug form that has solid drug particles floating in liquid.
Suspension
It is important to do THIS to a suspension.
Shake it bedside
Liquid drug form that is oil in water or water in oil.
Emulsion
Mineral oil is an example of an emulsion. Is it oil in water or water in oil?
Water in oil
Which emulsion is usually used topically?
water in oil
What two drug forms must be shaked bedside?
Suspensions and emulsions
Castor oil is oil in water or water in oil?
oil in water
What are three topical dosage forms?
Ointments

Creams

Gels
Topical dosage forms have three ways they are delivered. What are they?
Semisolids

Patches (transdermal therapeutic systems)..make sure to wash the skin before replacing

Implants
This is a single liquid dose.

PARENTERAL PRODUCT
ampule
This has a rubber diaphragm and may have more than one dose in it.

PARENTERAL PRODUCT
vial
This is the first name assigned to a drug ever in its life.
Chemical name

describes the chemical structure of the drug
This is the name that the pharm company gives to the drug prior to marketing it. It is usually easier than the chemical name.
Generic name
This is the drug name give to the drug by the pharm. company that is used by the company that registers the drug.
Brand or Trade name
Example of this controlled substance level is tylenol with codeine or hydrocodone.
Schedule 3
Example of this controlled substance level is librium & valium.
Schedule 4
This controlled substance level includes cocaine, demerol, oxycodone, ritaline and morphine.
Schedule 2
This controlled substance level has heroine and lsd and it is important to remember this about this level.
Schedule 1 - NO ACCEPTED MEDICAL USE
This level of controlled substance has a limited amount of narcotic drug in it.
Schedule 5
Give an example of a Schedule 6 drug and the description for this level.
Marijuana...limited medicinal uses
This drug action slows the growth of a cell.
Alter cell function
An example of this drug action is antacids.
Drugs that alter chemical composition of body fluids.....acidity altered by the antacid.
There are three principles of drug action that alter or interact with the body. List them.
2. Alter chemical composition of body fluids

3. Accumulate in tissue

4. Form Chemical Bonds with receptors in body
An example of this type of drug action is anesthesia.
Drugs that accumulate in tissue
This type of drug action refer to the lock & key concept...drug has an effinity for a certain area..drug mimics that specific spot.
Drugs form chemical bonds with receptors in the body
This is a drug action that binds to the receptor & stimulates its function....it mimics body functions
Agonist
Give an example of an agonist narcotic.
Morphine
Why is morphine an agonist?
Because it binds with central nervous system receptors and stimulats function of that receptor
What is an antagonist?
It prevents receptor stimulation and binds to receptor and depresses it. It can take the spot on the receptor, bind to a different receptor and block the cascade or other ways, but it depresses and reverses an agonist.
What is the difference between side effects and adverse effects?
Adverse are always bad

Side effects can be good
What are side effects and adverse effects from?
They are resulting from the normal pharmacological effects of a drug
Toxic effects are those related to the ______________ ______________.
dosage administered. All drugs are capable of producing toxic effects.
Allergic reactions are not caused from what? but instead are caused by this.
They are not a result of the pharacological effects of the drug, but rather a response of the client's immunological system to the presence of the drug. Prior sensitization of teh drug is generally required.
What is a drug safety?
Dosage range between therapeutic & toxic amount
What is an idiosyncratic reaction?
completely different effect on the patient than the intended effect. Usually happens on the first exposure. Old people with Adivan is the example.
This type of side effect causes congenital defects
Tetragenic
When does drug tolerance occur?
When the client requires a higher dose or more frequent administration to produce the desired drug effect
What is another name for a drug safety?
therapeutic index (TI)
What is the formula for the therapeutic index (TI) of a drug?
TI= ld 50/ed 50

lethal dose that will kill 50%
effective dose that helps 50%
Drug tolerance is a symptom of ____ ______ ______.
physical drug dependence
Withdrawl symptoms are present and the body can not function without the drug.
Physical drug dependence
This is the term for when the drug is the center of a person's thoughts emotions and activities. Physical effects are not present when it is withdrawn.
Psychological drug dependence
This term means the absorption efficiency of a particular drug formulation.
Bioavailability
When two drugs contain the same drug results in the same degree of bioavailability, the products are said to be _________________.
bioequivalent
The process by which a drug passes from its site of administration into the fluids of the body that will carry it to its site(s) of action.
absorption
Process by which a drug is carried from absorption site to active site.
Distribution
This is the first step in the passage of a drug through the body.
absorption.
Most drugs are absorbed here.
Small intestine
What are some things that may affect a drug's absorption rate?
Where it is administered
If there is food in the stomach
What parts of the body receive the distribution of drugs most rapidly?
Areas with high blood supply
What is the situation with anesthetics and fat?
Fat will hold on to anesthetics and slowly release it back into the blood stream
What is the deal with albumin and distribution?
It binds to proteins, so you have to have a high enough level administered to have it released.
What will allow a drug that is protein bound to be released for distribution?
Plasma concentrations diminish allowing distribution
To be eliminated from the body by way of the kidneys, drugs have to be fairly water soluble. What is the name of the process that helps the drugs become more water soluble?
biotransformation (or metabolism)
Other than making a drug more water soluble, what else does biotransformation do?
it permits the body to inactivate a potent drug before it accumulates and produces a toxic effect.
Where does biotransformation occur, and what assists it?
in the liver. microbial enzymes
What is the most important spot for elimination of a drug?
Kidney.although also feces, respirtory tract, breast milk, salive or sweat
What are the two ways that a kidney can eliminate a drug?
glomerular filtration- into the renal tubule

tubule secretion - more rapid than glomerular filtration
The time interval required for elimination processes to reduce the concentration of a drug in the body to one half of what it was at the beginning of the time interval.
drug half-life
elimination half-life
When the elimination rate of the drug is equivalent to its rate of absoprtion, it is called....
the peak plasma level
The highest plasma level achieved by a single administration of drug....NOT CUMULATIVE.
the peak plasma level
Oral admin of a drug would produce a graph of drug action that resembled a -------.

IV admin of a drug would create a graph that resembed a --------.
hill

slide (because it bypassed absorption)
What does MEC stand for?

What does it mean?
Minimum effective concentration

The minimum level required to illicit a phrmacological response
What is MTC?
Minimum toxic concentration...level in which toxic effects of the drug are observed
What is the goal level to maintain with a drug action?
Between the MEC and the MTC
What might be required to keep a drug within the therapeutic plasma level?
a loading dose to immediately get the drug levels in the plasma above the MEC


(for most drugs it has been observed that four or five drug half lifes have to elapse before this plateau is achieved)
What will an increased BMR do to a drug in the body?
It will metabolize it more rapidily and remove it from the body
Two drugs are administered and one decreases the effectiveness of the other.
Antagonistic drug interaction
Two drugs are administered and one increases the effectiveness of the other.
Synergistic drug interaction
Drug interactions can be ____________or _______________.
desirable or undesirable.
When the term vital signs is used, what does it include?
temperature
pulse
respirations
blood pressure

tprbp
List the responsibilities of the nurse for DRUG ADMINISTRATION.
1. Get Medication History
2. Identify Outcomes for patient
3. Physical Assessment
4. Prepare Drugs
5. Evaluate Outcomes
What does it mean to evaluate outcomes?

DRUG ADMINISTRATION
Is medication giving desired efffect?
Is it effective?
What does a meniscus cup convert for you?
ounces to ml
What is the first step in preparing drugs?
wash hands
What is the second step in preparing drugs?
gather all supplies

3. enough light
4. no distractions
With the physical assessment, you first take the vitals, then you need to find out other information. Name some of it.
Who is going to be able to pick up the drugs?
Can patient afford drugs?
Making sure the client can take the medicine and knows what the medicine is for, along with the possible side effects, fall under what part of the drug administration requirements and methods for a nurse?
Identify outcomes
What are the seven rights of medication administration?
1. the right DRUG
2. the right DOSE
3. the right CLIENT
4. the right TIME
5. the right ROUTE
6. the right DOCUMENTATION
7. the right to REFUSE
What are the first three rights of medication administration?
Drug
Dose
Client
What are the last four rights of medication administration/
Time
Route
Documentation
Refuse