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35 Cards in this Set

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pharmacotherapeutics
pharmacodynamics
pharmacokinetics
toxicity
What are the 4 branches of study in Pharmacology?
pharmacotherapeutics
The branch of pharm that is concerned with drugs used to prevent disorders and/or diagnose and treat disease.
"Clinical pharmacology"
pharmacodynamics
Branch of pharm that is a mechanism of action and observable effects, both biochemical and physiological. (i.e. how and why the drugs act on the body.) --- interactions btwn foreign chemicals and living tissues at the molecular and physiological level.
pharmacokinetics
The branch of pharmacology that deals with movement of drugs through the body... what the BODY does to the DRUG.
toxicity
study of harmful effects
pharmacokinetics
absorption
distribution
metabolism or biotransformation
excretion
Pharmacology
The study of drugs and their interaction with living organisms.
drugs
What does pharmako mean?
study of or science
What does logos mean?
outweigh
Beneficial effects _________ harmful effects for most patients, most of the time.
Drug
from Greek word meaning harm
Drug
a chemical agent other than food that is capable of interacting with living organisms to produce biochemical effects
True
T or F

All drugs have more than ove effect - all have multiple effects.
therapeutic
For each drug group we will learn several ___________ effects and several side effects.
Therapeutic effect
the effect for which the drug is administered.
Side effect
any effect of a drug other than the one for which the drug is administered.
Untoward effect
a side effect regarded as harmful or very unpleasant to the individual.
cure
With a few exceptions, drugs do not ____ a disease, they merely relieve the symptoms.
antibiotic
chemotherapeutic agents
What are the exceptions to the statement "drugs do not cure a disease, they merely relieve the symptoms."
All drugs are a potential poison.

All drugs have more than one effect - all have multiple effects.

drugs dont cure disease, they relieve the symptoms
What are the "cardinal" or general rules of drug action?
legislation
No ___________ until 20th century. Through the 1800s, patent medicines, tonics, elixirs, etc. - most worthless.
Life was moving from rural to urban life styles, and needed food preservatives.
Why did America need a change in the 1879 to 1906, industrial wise?
tetanus

serum from horse
In 1901, 10 children died during a diptheria epidemic, only they didn't die from diptheria. What did they die from and how did they get it?
1. Required drugs to be labeled and manufactured according to standards set in U.S.P. and N.F.

2. Listed eleven narcotic and habit-forming drugs and required that they be labeled.

3. Too many loopholes - drugs did not have to be safe OR effective.
What are the laws in the 1906 - Pure food and drug act?
Pure Food and Drug Act - 1906
1. Required drugs to be labeled and manufactured according to standards set in U.S.P. and N.F.

2. Listed eleven narcotic and habit-forming drugs and required that they be labeled.

3. Too many loopholes - drugs did not have to be safe OR effective.
Elixir of Sulfanilamide Incident (Antiinfective)
What happened in 1937 that caused 107 deaths?
Elixir
good tasting preparation of drugs combined with alcohol, sugar, and some aromatic or pleasant smelling substance.
Diethylene glycol (antifreeze mixture)
What was the solvent that was used in the Elixir of Sulfanilamide Incident (Antiinfective)?
"mislabeling" - elixir implied alcohol
What law did the company brake in Elixir of Sulfanilamide Incident (Antiinfective) ?
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
What act was established in 1938?
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)
1. Safety insured - drug companies test for toxicity in animals and in clinical trails before petitioning FDA for approval.

2. Quality and purity of origin assured - must conform to standards outlined in two official publications (U.S.P. and N.F.)

3. Labeling improved
a. Habit-forming drugs named and strength given; "warning" on label.
b. label must have adequate direction for use; dosages for adults, infants, and children; limitations or contraindications.
1. Safety insured - drug companies test for toxicity in animals and in clinical trails before petitioning FDA for approval.

2. Quality and purity of origin assured - must conform to standards outlined in two official publications (U.S.P. and N.F.)

3. Labeling improved
a. Habit-forming drugs named and strength given; "warning" on label.
b. label must have adequate direction for use; dosages for adults, infants, and children; limitations or contraindications.
What are the 3 laws in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)?
1952 - Durham-Humphrey Amendment
Distinguishes prescription drugs from over-the-counter drugs (no prescription)

Expanded laws on dispensing of prescription drugs oral or telephone prescriptions; refills vs. renewals.

Each state controls physicians lisense to prescribe non-controlled legend drugs.
legend drugs
"Caution, Federal law prohibits the transfer of this drug to any person other than the patient for whom it was prescribed.
Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments (1962)
What amendment or act:

Drug must be effective as well as safe.

1. Senator ________ started investigating drug industry in 1958.
2. Thalidomide incident helped legislation pass.

-expanded experimental data necessary to determine safety (need more animal testing before human testing approved)
- drugs usefullness (effectiveness) must outweigh dangers.