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261 Cards in this Set

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niclosamide MOA
uncouples oxidative metabolism; tapeworm scolex releases from the intestinal wall
praziquantal MOA
(know this one for sure)
opens calcium channels to cause muscular tetany; spastic paralysis; causes tegmental damage which activates the host immune system
albendazole, mebendazole MOA(know this one for sure)
inhibits synthesis of microtubules needed for glucose uptake -> decrease [glycogen] and [ATP] -> death
thiabendazole MOA
inhibits mitochondrial fumurate reductase
diethylcarbamazine MOA
immobilizes microfilariae via decreased muscular activity: also alters surface membranes to make organism more susceptible to host immune defenses
pyrantel pamoate, levamisole MOA
ganglionic nicotinic cholinergic agonists = muscular tetany
piperazine MOA
a GABA agonist at chloride channel in NM junction -> flaccid muscle paralysis
ivermectin MOA
(know this one for sure)
releases GABA and inc GABA binding -> facilitate opening of chloride channels in NM junction -> flaccid muscle paralysis in helminths, insects and ectoparasites may also cause tonic paralysis of musculature of nematodes via glutamate-gated Cl- channels found only in invertebrates
Cestodes (tapeworms) DOC on exams
niclosamide (remember flat like a nickel)

(2nd is praziquantal, then mebendazole)
roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) tx
albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, piperazine
pinworm, hookworm, whipworm, trichinosis tx
mebendazole
threadworm DOC
ivermectin
Trematodes (flukes) = Schistosoma DOC
praziquantel
patient passes tape worm segments (proglottids) - most likely Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) or a patient who likes to eat sushi passes tapeworm segments - most likely to be Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm) - treat with?
niclosamide or praziquantel
Tx cysticercosis with
albendazole
unknown worm tx
Praziquantel
Baby w anal itching (pruritis) and a postive “cellophane tape” test =
pinworm infestation - tx w mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate
Patient w mixed infestation = cestode (tapeworm) + trematode (fluke)
praziquantel
DOC for Giardia, Trichomonas and C. dificile infections
Metronidazole - active against anaerobes protozoa and bacteria
Metronidazole MOA
reduced to active nitroderivative that inhibits DNA replication
Metronidazole S/E
disulfiram-like reaction w EtOH Headache, n/v, flushing: teratogenic
DOC for PJP
Trim-sulfa
acute hemolysis in patient with malaria treated w:
primaquine = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
S/E's of chloroquine =
tinnitus, headache, resistant strains
DOC for prophylaxis for areas with chloroquine-resistant strains
mefloquine
DOC for tx of chloroquine-resistant malaria
sulfadoxine - pyrimethamine bx it has a different MOA than chloroquine.
sulfadoxine - pyrimethamine MOA
sulfadoxine MOA: inhibits dihydropteroate synthase

pyrimethamine MOA: inhibits DHF reductase, can cause megaloblastic anemia
chloroquine MOA
blocks DNA/RNA synthesis
Acyclovir medical use
for HSV
Acyclovir MOA
MOA: acyclovir (acycloguanosine) is converted to acyclovir-monophosphate by thymidine kinase. Other enzymes convert it to acyclovir-triphosphate (acyclo-GTP)which inhibits viral DNA polymerase
resistance to acyclovir by what mechanism?
a mutation which causes a deficiency of thymidine kinase
immunocompromised patient w mucocutaneous HSV infection
tx with acyclovir
patient w HSV encephalitis
treat with acyclovir
patient w genital HSV infection
treat with acyclovir
Keratoconjunctivitis caused by HSV
treat with trifluridine (trifluororthymidine)
Ganciclovir med use
for CMV
Gancyclovir MOA
phosphorylated to a triphosphate which inhibits DNA polymerase (triphosphate a competitive substrate w deoxyguanosine triphosphate for incorporation into DNA – stops DNA chain elongation to inhibit DNA synthesis
immunocompromised patient w CMV infection
treat with gancyclovir
Idoxuridine medical use
for ocular herpes
Amantidine medical use
influenza prophylaxis, prevents uncoating
Zidovudine (AZT = azidothymidine) MOA
converted to an active triphosphate which either inhibits viral DNA polymerase(reverse transcriptase) or is incorporated into DNA in the place of thymidine to stop
DNA chain elongation.
Zidovudine (AZT = azidothymidine) S/E
bone marrow depression and anemia
saquinavir
HIV protease inhibitors, inhibit HIV aspartic protease which converts polyproteins into functional core proteins and viral enzymes
Interferons MOA
MOA: causes protein synthesis:
- 2,5 adenine synthetase - makes adenylate oligomers which activate RNAse to degrade viral RNA
- protein kinase phosphorylates elongation factor 2 to prevent peptide viral chain initiation
- PDEase degrades terminal nucleotide of t-RNA to inhibit viral peptide chain
elongation
Interferons Net effects
- interferes w viral penetration, uncoating, assembly and release
- interferes w the synthesis of viral mRNA
- inhibition of the translation of viral mRNA
Amphotericin B MOA
binds to ergosterol in fungal membranes to form pores which increases the permeability of the fungal membrane, cells lose ions and macromolecules; enhances penetration of other antifungal drugs such as flucytosine
Amphotericin B S/E
clinical usefulness is limited by its nephrotoxicity
- histological damage to renal tubules w cell necrosis
- renal tubular acidosis (a defect of renal function that produces systemic acidosis because bicarbonate ion cannot be reabsorbed in the PT or DT).
- hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis

renal toxicity can be avoided by giving mannitol to induce a high rate of urinary flow
Amphotericin B resistance
Resistance from decreased membrane ergosterol or altered structure of ergosterol
DOC for Coccidioides immitis and Aspergillus infections
Amphotericin B on old USMLE

clinically DOC for Aspergillis is voriconazole and DOC for Coccidiodes is fluconazole.
Ketoconazole MOA
inhibits fungal CYP450 which prevents the demethylation of lanosterol to ergosterol, so blocks cell wall synthesis
why is ketoconazole contraindicated in a patient receiving tx w amphoteracin B?
because ketoconazole will BLOCK the antifungal actions of amphoteracin B
Ketoconazole med use
Used to tx Candida infections, also effective against Coccidioides immitis
Ketoconazole s/e
inhibits CYP450 to increase the plasma conc of other drugs, esp. cyclosporine in transplant patients;

- inhibits adrenal 17alpha & scc CYP450’s = adrenal insufficiency and decrease [testosterone] & [estradiol] = gynecomastia & decrease libido & potency in males; menstrual irregularities in females
Flucytosine MOA
converted to fluorouracil which inhibits thymidylate synthesis and thus inhibits DNA synthesis
Flucytosine resistance
Fungal resistance to flucytosine develops rapidly and limits its clinical effectiveness, so amphoterecin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, or flucytosine and amphoterecin B are given together
Flucytosine S/E
bone marrow depression, limits clinical usefulness
Flucytosine and Ampho B
Ampho B enhances the penetration of flucytosine: synergistic antifungal activity
Which drug is selectively toxic to fungi because mammalian cells are unable to
catalyze its deamination?
flucytosine
DOC for ring worm
Griseofulvin
Griseofulvin MOA
disrupts mitotic spindle by interacting w polymerized microtubules; fungal mitosis is inhibited
Griseofulvin med use
used to tx dermatophytes w hypae = Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton.
Penicillin MOA
interact w penicillin-binding proteins to inhibit transpeptidation and peptidoglycan synthesis; cell wall synthesis is inhibited.
Penicillin clearance
Eliminated by renal tubular secretion. Probenecid increases the t1/2 by inhibiting renal secretion (clearance). The [PCN] in serum increase whereas the [PCN] in the urine decrease
clavulanate, sulbactam & tazobactam inhibit:
bacterial beta-lactamases (penicillinases)
methcillin, nafcillin
acid labile beta-lactamase resistant penicillin
oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin
acid stable beta-lactamase resistant penicillin
imipenem/cilastatin
imipenem, which is resistant to beta-lactamase, is metabolized by renal tubular dihydropeptidases. Cilastatin inhibits these renal peptidases to decrease the renal clearance of imipenem = increased half-life of imipenem
Cephalosporins have the same MOA as
penicillins
patient w gonorrhea - tx w penicillin for 8 weeks - patient returns with similar
symptoms but no diplococci in urine (no longer has gonorrhea) - patient has what?
Chlamydia infection - tx w tetracycline unless patient is a PG female, then tx w erythromycin
patient has Streptococcus infection and is allergic to PCNs
tx w erythromycin
Vancomycin, i.v. MOA
bactericidal; blocks cell wall synthesis by preventing the release of sugar-glycan pentapeptide linked to a phospholipid in the cell wall
Clostridium difficile occurs w i.v. vancomycin, tx?
Metronidazole (DOC) or vancomycin
Aminoglycosides MOA
bactericidal; binds to 30S subunit = interfere w initiation complex of peptide formation, causes misreading of mRNA and break polysomes into non-functional monosomes
Aminoglycosides and PCNs
PCNs increase the penetration of Aminoglycosides, synergistic
Aminoglycosides S/E
- ototoxic
- nephrotoxic, more so in elderly patients
- drug accumulates in cells of PT and causes necrosis so urinary excretion of brush border enzymes increases - effect usually reversible since cells of PT can regenerate
- get defect of renal concentrating mechanism because gent acts on DT and CD to decrease the sensitivity to ADH
- decreased GFR, mild proteinuria, hyaline and granular casts in urine

- net effect = mild increase in serum creatinine, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia
Trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole (TS) MOA
bacteristatic, blocks multiple enzymes

dihydropteroate synthase - inhibited by sulfamethoxazole

DHF reductase – inhibited by trimethoprim

so no protein or RNA/DNA synthesis
Pneumocystis carinii DOC

(must know)
is Trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole
Tetracyclines MOA
bacteristatic; bind to 30S subunit to block aminoacyl t-RNA binding to the acceptor (A) site
Tetracyclines med use
acts against gram (+) and (-) organisms, Rickettsiae, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia and ameobas
Not used for pneumococcal pneumonia
Tetracyclines S/E
Chelates Ca++ - adverse effect on formation of teeth and bones - fetus and babies, bioavailability decreased by milk and food in GI tract

6.severe rash w sunlight
clindamycin MOA
bacteriostatic; binds to 50S subunit and blocks aminoacyl translocation of peptide chain
tx patient with clindamycin - patient develops pseudomembranous colitis. What organisms and what tx?
caused by Clostridium dificile - tx w oral metronidazole (or oral vancomycin)
3 examples of Macrolides
erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin
erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin MOA
bacteriostatic; Inhibits bacterial growth by suppressing RNA-dependent
protein synthesis
patient w pneumonia, but bug negative for gram stain
probably an atypical bug - tx w macrolide like erythromycin.
if gram (+) pneumonia, probably:
Streptococcus pneumoniae - tx w cephalosporin
erythromycin S/E
stomach cramping bx it stimulates motilin receptors in stomach; can be used to increase stomach motility in patients with diabetic gastroparesis
DOC for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ATYPICALS!
macrolides
tx of TB
"RIPE" = rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide & ethambutol
1) isoniazid (INH) causes hepatic damage; rifampin induces CYP450
Drugs which inhibit the DNA gyrase
nalidixic acid & fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin et al.)
Protein synthesis inhibitors
"buy AT 30, CELL at 50"

A= aminoglycosides (cidal)
T = tetracyclines (static)
C = chloramphenicol (static)
E = erythromyicn (static)
L = Lincomycin (static)
L = cLindamycin (static)
chloramphenicol, macrolides and clindamycin interaction
work at the same site, do NOT use them together because they will interfere w each other
Bactericidal Drugs
PCN's, cephalosporins, aztreonam, imipenem, cycloserine, aminoglycosides, methenamine, polymixin, colistin, rifampin, vancomycin, bacitracin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolones, nalidixic acid
Bacteriostatic Drugs
spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, macrolides, clindamycin, tetratcyclines, nitrofurans, sulfonamides/trimethoprim
plasmid-mediated resistance is easily transferred by
transduction to other species of bacteria
Beta-lactams =
PCN's, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems
the transpeptidase enzymes which are inhibited by the Beta-lactams are called:
penicillin-binding proteins (PBP's) because they are the target site for these drugs
resistance to Beta-lactams in gram (+) bugs
production of bacterial Beta-lactamases, altered PBP's.

MRSA = mutations change the binding sites of the PBP
resistance to Beta-lactams in gram (-) bugs
production of bacterial Beta-lactamases, reduced permeability (decreased the number of porins)
resistance to vancomycin (VRE's)
when a mutation changes the terminal D-ala to a D-lactate; vancomycin can no longer bind
fluoroquinolones resistance
a single point mutation alters the binding of FQ's to the active site of DNA gyrase
aminoglycoside resistance
plasmid-mediated enzymes are transferases which destroy the antibacterial effect of AG's by altering their structure
macrolide resistance
bacterial enzymes methylate the 23S ribosomal component of the bacterial 50S ribosome
tetracycline resistance
Plasmids code for efflux pumps which extrude the drug from the cell
folate synthesis inhibitor = trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole resistance
plasmid-coded gene synthesizes a form of dihyropteroate synthetase which does not bind sulfonamides even though it still binds PABA. folate synthesis continues on
rifampin resistance
a mutation causing a single amino acid substitution in the Beta-subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase reduces the binding of rifampin
bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol
plasmid-mediated, involves the production of acetyltransferases which inactivates the drug
gram positive cocci, alpha hemolysis, optochin resistant
S viridans/ mutans
gram positive cocci, alpha hemolysis, optochin sensitive
S. pneumo
gram positive rod, beta hemolysis, bacitracin resistant
S. pyogenes
gram positive rod, beta hemolysis, bacitracin sensitive
S. agalactiae
Gram positive cocci, catalase negative with no hemolysis
Enterococcus
Gram positive cocci catalase positive with no hemolysis.
Novobiocin sensitive
S. epidermidis
Gram positive cocci catalase positive with no hemolysis.
Novobiocin resistant
S. saprophyticus
Gram positive cocci, catalase positive, coagulase positive
S. aureus
gram positive rods
Clostridium
Listeria
Bacillus
gram negative "coccoid" rods
H. flu

Bordetella pertussis
gram negative rods, fast lactose fermenter
Klebsiella
E. coli
gram negative rods, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase negative
Shigella
Salmonella
Proteus
gram negative rods, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase positive
Pseudomonas
Chocolate agar with factors V and X for which organism?
H. flu
Thayer-Martin media for which organism?
N. gonorrhea
Bordet-gengou media for which organism?
B. pertussis
Tellurite plate, Loffler's medium, blood agar for which organism?
C. diphtheriae
Lowenstein-Jensen agar for which organism?
M. tuberculosis
pink colonies on MacConkey's for agar means what?
lacotse fermenting enterics
Charcoal yeast extract agar for which organism?
Legionella
gram negative rods, fast lactose fermenter
Klebsiella
E. coli
gram negative rods, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase negative
Shigella
Salmonella
Proteus
gram negative rods, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase positive
Pseudomonas
Chocolate agar with factors V and X for which organism?
H. flu
Thayer-Martin media for which organism?
N. gonorrhea
Bordet-gengou media for which organism?
B. pertussis
Tellurite plate, Loffler's medium, blood agar for which organism?
C. diphtheriae
Lowenstein-Jensen agar for which organism?
M. tuberculosis
pink colonies on MacConkey's for agar means what?
lacotse fermenting enterics
Charcoal yeast extract agar for which organism?
Legionella
Sabourand's agar for which organism?
Fungi
Congo red stain
amyloid, green apple birifringence
Giemsa's stain
Borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, Chlamydia
PAS stain
stains glycogen, mucopolysaccharides.

used to diagnose Whipples
Ziehl-Neelsen stain
acid-fast bacteria
India Ink stain
Cryptcoccus neoformans
Silver stain
Fungi, PCP, Legionella
Obligate aerobes
"Nagging Pests Must Breathe AER"

Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Bacillus
Obligate anaerobes
Clostridium, Bacteroides, and Actinomyces to name a few
Obligate intracellular organisms
Rickettsia, Chlamydia can't make their own ATP
Sabourand's agar for which organism?
Fungi
Congo red stain
amyloid, green apple birifringence
Giemsa's stain
Borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, Chlamydia
PAS stain
stains glycogen, mucopolysaccharides.

used to diagnose Whipples
Ziehl-Neelsen stain
acid-fast bacteria
India Ink stain
Cryptcoccus neoformans
Silver stain
Fungi, PCP, Legionella
Obligate aerobes
"Nagging Pests Must Breathe AER"

Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Bacillus
Obligate anaerobes
Clostridium, Bacteroides, and Actinomyces to name a few
Obligate intracellular organisms
Rickettsia, Chlamydia can't make their own ATP
Facultative intracellular
"Some Bast Bugs May Live FacultativeLY"

Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia
alpha hemolytic
S. pneumo
S viridans
Beta hemolytic
S. aureus
S pyogenes
S agalactiae
Listeria monocytogenes
tumbling motility

meningitis in newborns

unpasteurized milk
Listeria
Protein A is:
virulence factor for S. aureus
toxins of S. aureus
TSST-1 - toxic shock
exfoliative toxin - scalded skin
enterotoxins - rapid-onset food poisoning
antibody to M protein provides immunization to:
S. pyogenes
ASO titer detects:
recent S. pyogenes infection
Strep pyogenes causes
pyogenic: pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetigo
toxigenic: scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome
immunologic: rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis
diphtheria exotoxin
ABCDEFG
ADP ribosylation
Beta-prophage
Corynebacterium
Diphtheriae
Elongation Factor
Granules
actinomyces israeli
gram positive rod with long branching filments resembling fungi
sulfur granules in sinus tract
treat with PCN
Nocardia asteroides
gram positive rod with long branching filments resembling fungi
pulmonary infection in immunocompromised

rx with Sulfa
SNAP nocardia and actinomyces
Sulfa for
Nocardia
Actinomyces use
PCN
haEMOPhilus influenza
Epiglottitis, Meningitis, Otitis, and Pneumonia
Enterobacteriae, think:
COFFEe
capsular (K)
O antigen
Flagellar antigen (H)
Ferment glucose
Enterobacteriae
reheated meat dishes
C perfringens
undercooked meat
E. coli O157:H7
poultry, meat, eggs
Salmonella
meats, mayonnaise, and custard
S. aureus
bloody diarrhea, comma shaped, growth at 42 C, oxidase positive
Campylobacter
bloody diarrhea, motile, lactose negative
Salmonella
bloody diarrhea, nonmotile, lactose negative
Shigella
bloody diarrhea, Shiga-like toxin, HUS
EHEC
bloody diarrhea, O157:H7
EIEC
bloody diarrhea, daycare outbreak, pseudoappendicitis
Yersinia entercolitica
bloody diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis
C. difficile
bloody diarrhea, protazoa
Entamoeba histolytica
watery diarrhea, traveler
ETEC
watery diarrhea, comma shaped
Vibrio cholerae
watery diarrhea, protozoa in immunocompetent
giardia
watery diarrhea, protozoa in immunocompromised
cryptosporidium
watery diarrhea, viruses
rotavirus, adenovirus, Norwalk
Cholera toxin
induces cAMP activating Gs
Pertussis toxin
induces cAMP to disable Gi, causing whooping cough
E. coli heat labile toxin
act via ADP ribosylation to permanently activate adenyl cyclase (inc cAMP)
Bacillus anthracis toxin
edema factor, a bacterial adenylate cyclase to inc cAMP
requires cysteine
Legionella
bite from a Ixodes tick
Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi
undulant fever.
dairy products, contact with animals
Brucellosis, brucella
tick bite; rabbits deer
Francisella tularensis
animal bite from a cat or dog causing cellulitis
Pasteurella multocida
Rx for leprosy
Dapsone
headache, fever, and rash after contact with an arthropod vector
Ricketssiae
Rickettsiae transmitted by aerosol and causes pneumonia
Coxiella
outward spread of rash
typhus is centriphugal
inward spread of rash
spotted fever is centripetal
Q fever
is Queer b/c it has no rash, has no vector, and has negative Weil-Felix

CAused by Coxiella burnetti (a weird rickettsial)
rash on palms and soles migrating to trunk. h/a fever

East coast
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
Weil-Felix for
rickettsial antibodies
Chlamydia subtypes A, B, and C
blindness in Africa, Chronic infection
Lyme Disease clinical
BAKE a key Lyme pie
Bell's palsy
Arthritis
Kardiac block
Erythema chronicum
Chlamydia subtypes L1 L2 and L3
Lymphogranuloma venereum
FTA-ABS
find the antibody absolutely
(Treponemes)
VDRL false positive
VDRL
by Viruses
drugs
rheumatic fever
Lupus and Leprosy
budding yeast with pseudohyphae
Candida
Candida Rx
nystatin for superficial

amphotericin for systemic
Southwestern US, fungus
Coccidioidomycosis
Mississippi and Ohio valley fungus

bird or bat droppings

Intracellular
Histoplasmosis
Rural Latin America fungus

"Captain's Wheel Appearance"
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Brain cysts, seizures, parasite
Taenia solium
Liver cysts parasite
Echinococcus granulosus
B12 deficiency parasite
Diphyllobothrium latum
Biliary tract disease parasite
Clonorchis sinensis
Hemoptysis parasite
Paragonimus westermani
Portal hypertension parasite
Schistosoma mansoni
Microcytic anemia parasite
Anculostoma, Necator
Perianal pruritis parasite
Enterobius
ssDNA virus
parvovirdae
dsRNA virus
reoviridae
naked RNA + viruses
(infectious genome)
Calciviridae, Picornaviridae
DNA virus repllicating in the cytoplasm
poxviridae
RNA viruses replicating in the nucleus
influenza and retroviridae
killed virus vaccines
rabies, influenza, Salk polio, and HAV

RIP Always
egg based vaccines
Flu, MMR, Yellow fever
segmented viruses
bunyavirus, orthmyxovirus, arenavirus, and reovirus
CXCR1 and HIV
rapid progression to AIDS
HIV encephalitis by
access through macrophages, microglial nodules with multinicleated giant cells
opportunistic brain infections
crytococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, CMV encephalopathy, AIDS dementia, PML (JC virus)
opportunistic eye infection
CMV retinitis
opportunistic mouth and throat infections
thrush, HSV, CMV, oral hairy luekoplakia
opportunistic lung diseases
PCP, TB, histoplasmosis
opportunistic GI diseases
cryptosporidiosis, MAI complex, CMV colitis, EBV
opportunistic skin infections
VZV, HHV-8
opportunistic genital infections
herpes, warts, cervical cancer from HPV
pneumonia in a neonate
group b strep, e coli

(same for meningitis in a newborn)
pus, empyema, abscess
S. aureus
pediatric infection
H flu including epiglottitis
pneumonia in cystic fibrosis, burn infection
pseudomonas
branching rods in oral infection
actinomyces israeli
traumatic open wound
c. perfringens
surgical wound
s. aureus
dog or cat bite
pasteurella multocida
currant jelly sputum
Klebsiella pneumo
sepsis/meningitis in newborn
group B strep
antibiotics that block nucleotide synthesis
sulfonamides and trimethaprim
antibiotics that block DNA topoisomerase
quinolones
antibiotic that blocks mRNA synthesis
rifampin
bactericidal antibiotics
PCN, cephalosporins, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole
aztreonam
monobactam resistant to beta lactamases, synergistic with aminoglycosides, for G- rods
tetracyclines for
"VACUUM THe BedRoom"
vibrio, acne, chlamydia, ureaplasm, urealyticum, mycoplasma pneumoniae, tularemia, H. pylori, Borellia burgdorferi, Rickettsia
sulfonamides MOA
PABA antimetabolies inhibit dihydropteroate synthase
clinical use of sulfonamides
Nocardia, chlamydia, simple UTI
fluoroquinolones toxicity (major one)
quinoLONES hurt attachment to long BONES
polymyxin MOA
bind cell membrane and disrupt their osmotic properties