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20 Cards in this Set

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Normal PT & Therapeutic Level
11.0-12.5 seconds, with therapeutic level at 1.5-2 times normal value.
Normal INR & Therapeutic Level
0.8-1.1, with therapeutic level 2-3.
Normal APTT & Therapeutic Level
30-40 seconds, with therapeutic level 1.5-2.0 times normal value
Antidote for Heparin
Protamine sulfate IF active hemorrhage
Antidote for Warfarin(Coumadin)
Vitamin K
warfarin(Coumadin)
interferes with liver synthesis of Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Used for pts with hx of thrombosis or prevention of thrombosis, MI, stroke. Monitor PT for lab values.
Heparin
activates antithrombin which inactivates thrombin & clotting factor Xa. No fibrin=No clot. Parenteral admin only. SE=hemorrhage.
Blood Componets
Generally blood not given unless Hgb count <10g/dL. Prior to transfusion, type and match, check for ABO +/- compatibility. RNs and MDs only can hang blood bag.
Whole Blood
only used for massive rapid loss. usually 500mL/unit, so risk for fluid overload.
Packed RBCs
commonly used when pt needs volume & Hgb replacement. No plasma=No clotting factors.
Plasma(fresh or frozen)
Blood with RBC, WBC and platelets removed. Contains only clotting factors, protein, & antibodies. Given when pt needs clotting factors.
Platelets
given for tx of thrombocytopenia
Cryoprecipitate
"Cryo." precipitate obtained after thawing plasma. Contains fibrinogen & other clotting factors. Given for pts with bleeding disorders.
Clotting Factors
Specific factors given to treat specific deficiency
Albumin
given to increase colloid osmotic pressure to treat/prevent fluid shifts.
Immunoglobulins
pre-prepared medication for injection given to boost immunity.
Iron-Deficient Anemia
Treated with PO iron: ferrous sulfate or ferrous gluconate. SE: GI distress. Vit C enhance absorption, antacids reduce.
Vitamin B12 deficient Anemia
May result from lack of intrinsic factor(pernicious anemia) or malabsorption due to GI problems. Can also cause demyelination of neurons.
Folic Acid deficient Anemia
Malabsorption, malnutrition. Folic acid deficiency will mask B12 deficiency
WBC Stimulation
"grastim" family. Used for cancer pts or chemo-recovering pts. Primary SE: bone pain & elevation of liver enzymes.