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72 Cards in this Set

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Endotracheal Route
naloxone (Narcan), atropine, Versed (midazolam), epinephrine (Adrenalin), lidocaine (Xylocaine)
epinephrine, isoproterenol (Isuprel), sodium bicarbonate, Calcium chloride, dopamine (Intropin) and dobutamine (Dobutrex), norepinephrine (Levophed) to maintain blood pressure and heart rate, aspirin torestore coronary blood flow in acute MI
Resuscitation and Vasopressors
Ipecac syrup, activated charcoal, naloxone (Narcan) and naltrexone (Trexan) are opioid Rc antagonists, flumazenil (Romazicon –block the benzodiazepine Rc, and are used for a benzodiazepine overdose e.g. Valium or Versed overdose), epinephrine (Ana-kit or Epi-Pen) –for anaphylactic shock
Overdose or Suicide
This is the quickest route for many medications as they are absorbed very quickly from the pulmonary
vasculature into the systemic circulation
Endotracheal Administration
NAVEL
Naloxone, Atropine, Versed (midazolam), epinephrine, lidocaine
Drugs for severe dysrhythmias (Ventricular)

Ventricular fibrillation
lidocaine (Xylocaine)-stabilizes the muscle membrane promoting a return to normal rhythm
epinephrine(which is an Americanization of the British-approved name "adrenaline")
Drugs for Asystole (complete “flat-line”)
is sometime administered to control the excess H+ accumulating in the body
NaHCO3
calcium chloride (CaCl) is often given to enhance muscle function and stimulate a more forceful myocardial contraction
Positive Inotropic Drugs
are drugs that constrict blood vessels and stimulate heart rate (i.e. they are α-and β-agonists) –they produce an increase in blood pressure and usually improve blood flow to the tissues of the body

dobutamine (Dobutrex)

dopamine (Intropin), especially good at restoring renal blood flow

epinephrine (…as in “adrenaline rush”)

norepinephrine (Levophed), known as noradrenaline outside the USA
Vasopressors
especially good at restoring renal blood flow
dopamine (Intropin)
Benzodiazepine (Tranquilizer) Antagonists
flumazenil (Romazicon)
epinephrine (Primatene Mist -an OTC inhaler), ephedrine (usually an injection or a syrup), isoproterenol (Isuprel), albuterol (Proventil inhaler), salmeterol (Serevent—a long acting inhaler), terbutaline (Brethaire -also used to stop labor)
Sympathomimetic Bronchodilators (all have some ϐ2 -agonism)
ipratropium (Atrovent) is an atropine like drug, theophylline (Theo-Dur) is a coffee/caffeine/chocolate-like drug
Other Types of Bronchodilators
Leukotriene Rc Blockers
Singulair (montelukast), Accolate (zafirlukast)
beclomethasone (Vanceril MDI -”metered dose inhaler”), fluticasone (Flovent MDI), triamcinolone (Azmacort MDI)
Inhaled Steroids
cromolyn (Intal)
Mast Cell Stabilizers
isoniazid “INH”, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin –“4 Drug Therapy”
Anti-TB Antibiotics
azithromycin (Zithromax), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin)
Anti-Legionnaire’s antibiotics
d-tubocurarine, vecuronium (Norcuron)
Muscle Paralyzing Agents
midazolam (Versed) and diazepam (Valium), propofol (Diprivan) -the white stuff, sufentanil (Sufenta) –a potent opioid agonist
Sedation For Ventilated Patients
nicotine (Nicorette), bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin), varenicline(Chantix)
Anti-smoking
catacholamines

Anticholinergics

Methylxanthines
I Bronchodilators
All the drugs in this class stimulate an “adrenergic”receptor of the β2 subtypeof the sympathetic nervous system –hence, “sympathomimetics”)
Bronchodilators
cause bronchial smooth muscles to relax
β2 Rc agonists
primarily cause the heart rate to
speed up and the blood vessels
to constrict
β1 Rc agonists
given by tablet, liquid, nebulizer or powder
Bronchodilators
epinephrine
ephedrine
isoproterenol (Isuprel);
albuterol (Proventil)
Sympathomimetic Bronchodilators
theophylline (Theo-Dur) which belongs to a class of coffee/caffeine/chocolate-like drugs called methylxanthines

…or, Parasympatholytic drugs like atropine and ipratropium (Atrovent) – the
“vent” means it’s a metered
dose inhaler or MDI
Non Sympathomimetic Bronchodilators
Singulair (montelukast) by Merck

Accolate (zafirlukast) by Zeneca Pharmaceuticals

Ultair (pranlukast) by SmithKline Beecham has been approved in Europe and Japan, and is in late stage trials for use in this country
leukotriene Rc antagonists
beclomethasone (Vanceril MDI)

triamcinolone (Azmacort MDI)
Corticosteroid
cromolyn sodium (Intal)which isgiven as an inhaled powder
Mast Cell Stabilizers
isoniazid—called “INH”

rifampin

ethambutol

streptomycin
Drugs Used to Treat TB
Zithromax (azithromycin), which is a
“macrolide”, erythromycin-like
antibiotic

Levaquin (levofloxacin), which is a
fluroquinolone Cipro-like antibiotic
Drugs to treat legionairres disease
d-tubocurarine (a derivative
of curare)

vecuronium (Norcuron)
Drugs Used in Ventilated Patients
has become very
popular because it sedates the patient
and also has good antiemetic properties
propofol
(Diprivan),
a new nicotine Rc blocker is the biggest thing since nicotine gum for smoking cessation
varenicline (Chantix)
phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine), oxymetazoline (Afrin Nasal Spray); there are also many different oral preparations of pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) and phenylephrine (Contact, etc. etc.). Note: ephedrine has been banned from most products
Decongestants
diphenhydramine (Benadryl), brompheniramine (Dimetane), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), promethazine (Phenergan)
fexofenadine (Allegra), loratadine (Claritin)
Antihistamines
beclomethasone (Beconase), triamcinolone (Nasacort),
fluticasone (Flonase), mometasone (Nasonex)
Corticosteroids
cromolyn (NasalCrom)
Mast Cell Stabilizers
guaifenesin is the most popular
OTC expectorant
clotrimazole (Mycelex), nystatin (Mycostatin)
Antifungals
These “epinephrine-like” drugs act as α-agonist vasoconstrictors
to reduce congestion and to allow improved breathing. They
can be taken by spray or as oral medications.
Decongestants
Neo-Synephrine Nasal Spray (phenylephrine)

Afrin Nasal Spray (oxymetazoline)
Topical preparations
Contact (phenylephrine)

Sudafed (see link) was Pfizer’s original formulation of pseudoephedrine
Oral OTC preparations
These drugs block the H1 Rc on cells found in the nose and
Throat.
Antihistamines
Benadryl (diphenhydramine)

Phenergan (promethazine)

Chlor-Trimeton (chlorpheniramine)
The older, inexpensive “1st generation”α-histamines

Claritin (loratadine)

Zyrtec (cetirizine)

Allegra (fexofenadine)
“3rdGeneration” α-histamines
pen VK

amoxicillin

Biaxin (clarithromycin), a “macrolide”
erythromycin-like drug

ciprofloxacin (Cipro) belong to the fluroquinolone class of antibiotics
Oral antibiotics, e.g. for use in strep. throat
Bactroban (mupirocin)

Neosporin ointment
Topical creams and ointments, antibiotics
Floxin Otic (ofloxacin)
Solutions and suspensions, Antibiotics
codeine/morphine are the classic examples, but any opioid will do (see heroin cough syrup add!)

hydrocodone (Hycodan) is
used more often these days
Narcotic cough suppressants
guaifenesin
Expectorants
triiodothyronine or T3 (Cytomel), tetraiodothyronine, thyroxin or T4, (Synthroid), desiccated thyroid (Armour) is an old preparation made from pig thyroid glands and measured in grains
Hypothyroidism
propylthiouracil or PTU blocks synthesis of T3 while radioactivesodium iodide 131 destroys or suppresses the thyroid gland depending ondose
Hyperthyroidism
somatropin (Genotropin) is a hGH (human growth hormone) manufactured by recombinant DNA technology (rDNA)
Growth Hormone Deficiency
Humulin R
Rapid Acting or Regular Insulin
Humulin N
Intermediate Acting Insulin (also called NPH Insulin)
Humulin L
Intermediate Acting Insulin (also called Lente Insulin)
Humulin U
Long Acting Insulin (also called Ultralente Insulin)
Humulin 50/50 and Humulin 70/30
Combination Regular and Intermediate Acting Insulin:
Exubera
Inhaled Insulin
Oral Antidiabetic
Armour (desiccated pig thyroid)

synthetic T3(Cytomel)

synthetic T4(Synthroid)
thyroid supplements
Too much adrenal hormones results in
Cushings disease (Hypercortisolism)
is the result of an
autoimmune attack on the endocrine part of the pancreas.
Diabetes Mellitus
lowers blood sugar most at 2-5 hours and lasts up to 5-8 hours
Humulin R
start working in 1-3 hours up to 20 hours
Humulin N and L
injected
once daily and sustains a 24 hour level
Humulin U
were the first widely used oral hypoglycemic medications. They are insulin secretagogues, triggering insulin release by direct action on the pancreatic beta cells

chlorpropamide (Diabinese) is the prototype while glipizide (Glucotrol) is a second-generation agent
Sulfonylureas
a group of agents that reduce hepatic glucose output and increase uptake of glucose by the periphery, including skeletal muscle

metformin (Glucophage)
Biguanides