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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Damage to vital organs resulting from hypertension is called:
a. chf
b. multiple organ/system failure
c. cardiovascular disease
d. copd
c. cardiovascular disease
These agents act to lower blood pressure by stopping the conversion of angiotension I to angiotension II?
a. ACE inhibitors
B. Angiotension II-receptors blockers
C. Diuretics
D. β Blockers
a. ACE inhibitors
The product of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance defines:
A. arterial blood pressure
B. Central venous pressure
C. Afterload
D. Preload
A. arterial blood pressure
First-line agents for treatment of uncomplicated hypertension include:
A. Diuretics
B. Thiazide diurectics and β blockers
C. ACEIs and α--blocking agents
D. ACEIs, β blockers, and ARBs
B. Thiazide diurectics and β blockers
Angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) produce which of the following effects?
I. Decrease in renal blood flow
II. reduction of preipheral arterial pressure
III. increase in renal blood flow
IV. significant increase in HR
V. Increase in cardiac output

A. II, IV, and V
B. I, II, and IV
C. II, III, and V
D. I, II, III, IV, and V
C. II, III, and V
ACEIs are indicated for which of the following?
I. Heart failure
II. Systolic dysfunction
III. Secondary prevention of myocardial infarction
IV. Hypertension
V. Diabetic nephropathy

a. IV
b. I, II, and IV
c. I, II, III, and IV
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
A significant drug interaction occurs between ACEIs and

a. corticosteroids
b. loop diuretics
c. NSAIDs
d. antibiotics
c. NSAIDs
The five classes of diuretics include which of the following?

I. Loops
II. Potassium sparing
III. Osmotics
IV. Thiazides
V. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

a. I and IV
b. II, III, and V
c. I, II, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
Thiazide diuretics increase excretion of:

I. Sodium
II. Chloride
III. Calcium
IV. Potassium
V. Magnesium

a. I and II
b. III, IV, and V
C. I, II, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
C. I, II, IV, and V
Lasix and bumex are:
a. thiazide diuretics
b. loop diuretics
c. ACEIs
d. Calcium channel blockers
b. loop diuretics
Agents that reduce total peripheral resistance by a direct action on vascular smooth muscle are:
a. angiotension blockers
b. vasodilators
c. ACEI's
d. calcium channel blockers
b. vasodilators
Nitroglycerine relieves chest pain by:
a. decreasing heart rate
b. increasing force of heart contractions
c. dilating coronary arteries
d. constricting coronary arteries
c. dilating coronary arteries
Nitrates can be administered by which of the following routes?
I. transdermal
II. inhalation
III. oral
IV. IV
V. sublingual

a. I and V
b. II and III
c. I, III, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, and V
c. I, III, IV, and V
All patients with angina should recieve what drug for prophylaxis of a myocardial infarction
a. heparin
b. dopamine
c. lidocaine
d. aspirin
d. aspirin
Anticoagulants work by:
a. Preventing the formation of the fibrin clot
b. Lysing the thrombi by degrading the fibrin
c. dilating vessels so that clots are less likely to form
d. inhibiting the action of platelets
a. Preventing the formation of the fibrin clot
The most commonly used anticoagulant is:
a. Warfarin
b. Aspirin
c. Heparin
d. Protamine sulfate
c. Heparin
Aspirin is a(n):
a. anticoagulant
b. antiplatelet agent
c. analgesic
d. thrombolytic
b. antiplatelet agent
Thrombolytic agents should be given when in relation to the onset of symptoms?
a. Within 12 hours
b. within 2 days
c. within minutes
d. within 1 to 2 weeks
a. Within 12 hours
Thrombolytics restore coronary blood flow by:
a. Dilating the artery
b. preventing fibrin clot formation
c. preventing platelet aggregation
d. dissolving the thrombus
d. dissolving the thrombus
Your 37-year-old patient's initial blood pressure was 160/98. No other readings have been taken since this time. Should he be diagnosed as having hypertension?
a. yes
b. no
b. no
This group of diuretic agents is the most potenent:
a. Potassium sparing
b. Osmotic
c. Loop
d. Thiazide
c. Loop
All of the following are complications of diuretics, except:
a. hypokalemia
b. volume depletion
c. hyperkalemia
d. hyperglycemia
c. hyperkalemia
Any substance that increases urine flow is termed
a. corticosteroid
b. diuretic
c. vasopressor
d. antihypertensive
b. diuretic
Aldosterone:
a. increases sodium and water reabsorption
b. decreases sodium and water reabsorption
c. increases glomerular blood flow
d. increases urine output
a. increases sodium and water reabsorption
Osmotic diuretics function by:
a. blocking reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the distal tubule
b. blocking reabsorption in the ascending limb of the loop of henle
c. blocking reabsorption of the NaCl in the proximal tubule and descending limb of the loop of henle
d. blocking reabsorption of the sodium and bicarbonate from the proximal tubule
c. blocking reabsorption of the NaCl in the proximal tubule and descending limb of the loop of henle
Which of the following is the most selected osmotic diuretic agent?
a. Urea
b. furosemide
c. chlorothiazide
d. mannitol
d. mannitol
The use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors will result in:
a. metabolic alkalosis
b. metabolic acidosis
c. respiratory alkalosis
d. respiratory acidosis
b. metabolic acidosis
Diuretics that produce their effect by inhibiting the reabsorption of chloride and sodium in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle are known as:
a. potassium sparing
b. osmotic
c. loop
d. thiazide
c. loop
Agents that block reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubule are:
a. osmotic diuretics
b. thiazide diuretics
c. potassium-sparing diuretics
d. loop diuretics
b. thiazide diuretics
The most common adverse reactions associated with diuretics include:
I. ototoxicity
II. volume depletion
III. diarrhea
IV. allergic reactions
V. electrolyte abnormalities

a. I only
b. II and V
c. II, III, and IV
d. II, III, IV, and V
d. II, III, IV, and V
Your patient is suffering from cerebreal edema. Which group of diuretic agents would you expect to be administered?
a. loop
b. osmotic
c. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
d. thiazide
b. osmotic
Your patient is recieving Lasix IV and complains of a ringing in her ears. What steps could you take to help alleviate this side effect without changing the medication itself?
a. speed up the rate of infusion
b. slow the rate of infusion
c. deliver the medication as an IV bolus
d. both a and c
b. slow the rate of infusion
This group of agents can depress the respiratory system, causing the patient to hypoventilate:
a. narcotics
b. benzodiazepines
c. barbiturates
d. antidepressants
a. narcotics
Prozac and zoloft are examples of:
a. antidepressants
b. mild tranquilizers
c. barbiturates
d. opioids
a. antidepressants
Benzodiazepines are used to:
a. relieve anxiety
b. produce analgesia
c. control psychotic illnesses
d. treat diarrhea
a. relieve anxiety
Xanax, valium, versed, and ativan are examples of:
a. barbiturates
b. opioid
c. Benzodiazepines
d. Antidepressants
c. Benzodiazepines
Barbiturates are often avoided because of which of the following effects?
I. High risk of abuse
II. Rapid development of tolerance
III. Increased seizure activity
IV. High risk of addiction
V. Toxic potential
a. I and IV
b. I, III, and V
C. I, II, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
C. I, II, IV, and V
Barbiturates may be indicated for all the following except:
a. reducing anxiety
b. seizure control
c. seizure prophylaxis
d. induction of anesthesia
a. reducing anxiety
Alcohol affects the CNS as a:
a. stimulant
b. depressant
c. antidepressant
d. no effect
b. depressant
Pain is:
a. easy to measure
b. experienced at the same threshold by all patients
c. subjective and unpleasant
d. always well controlled
c. subjective and unpleasant
NSAIDS are used to:
a. relieve depression
b. treat moderate pain
c. reduce seizure activity
d. induce sleep
b. treat moderate pain
Major problems with the administration of NSAIDS are:
a. Gastric irritation and ulceration
b. headache and coma
c. pancreatitis and cholecystitis
d. addiction and abuse
a. Gastric irritation and ulceration
Your patient is a 6-year-old male suffering from a run-of-the-mill childhood febrile illness (such as the flu). Which NSAID would not be recommended?
a. tylenol
b. Naprosyn
c. aspirin
d. advil
c. aspirin
Opoids are characterized by which of the following?
I. highly addictive
II. known as narcotic agents
III. used to treat moderate severe pain
IV. produce euphoria
V. derived from dandelion flowers

a. I and II
b. III, IV and V
c. I, II, III, and IV
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
c. I, II, III, and IV
Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) means:
a. patients can have as much opiod as they want
b. patients inform the nurse when they need pain control
c. patients self-administer a predetermined dose of opioid at set intervals
d. patients are taught to medicate to reduce pain
c. patients self-administer a predetermined dose of opioid at set intervals
Morphine, codeine, dilaudid, demerol, and darvon are all examples of
a. narcotics
b. local anesthetics
c. general analgesics
d. spinal blocks
b. local anesthetics
The pharmacological modifications of painful and frightening experiences during medical procedures defines:
a. general anesthesia
b. conscious sedation
c. deep sedation
d. local anesthesia
b. conscious sedation
Analeptic drugs would be used for treatment of which of the following?
I. respiratory failure
II. narcolepsy
III. barbiturate overdose
IV. obesity
V. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

a. II and III
b. I, III, and IV
c. I, II, IV, and V
d. I, II, III, IV, and V
c. I, II, IV, and V
Your 20-year-old patient has just been admitted through the emergency department with a blood alcohol level of 520 mg/dl. What potential side effect of alcohol overconsumption should you be most on the lookout for?
a. dis inhibition
b. nausea/vomiting
c. abusive behavior
d. respiratory arrest
d. respiratory arrest
Your 68-year-old patient with coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease (post CABG) has a history of gasteric ulcers. Which NSAID could you safely recommend he use at home?
a. Aspirin
b. Ibuprofen
c. Acetaminophen
d. A and B
c. Acetaminophen
Your patient is experiencing heart failure and is in need of an inotropic agent. Which of the following would you not recommend, barring any cardiac issues?
a. lidocaine
b. digoxin
c. milrinone
d. dobutamine
a. lidocaine
You are treating a patient who has a severe asthma. Which classification of drugs may pose some risk of bronchoconstriction and should be carefully utilized in patients with asthma and COPD?
a. β-Adrenergic cardiac stimulants
b. cardiac glycosides
c. β blockers
d. antiarrhythmics
c. β blockers
Which agent is a parasympatholytic used in cardiac resuscitation of asystole?
a. epinephrine
b. magnesium
c. atropine
d. isoproterenol
c. atropine
Cardiac glycosides would:
a. reduce ventricular arrhythmias
b. decreased blood pressure
c. increase HR
d. increase myocardial contractility
d. increase myocardial contractility
Class IA agents are effective in treating
a. bradycardia
b. AV node delays
c. ectopic beats
d. atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
d. atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
Class IB antiarrhythmics are limited to treating:
a. Atrial arrhythmias
b. ventricular arrhythmias
c. tachycardia
d. CHF
b. ventricular arrhythmias
Lidocaine is used to treat:
a. Ventricular arrhythmias
b. atrial arrhythmias
c. AV node delays
d. supraventricular contractlity
a. Ventricular arrhythmias
Atropine would be given to:
a. increase blood pressure
b. increase heart rate
c. treate ventricular arrhythmias
d. improve cardiac contractility
b. increase heart rate
Which of the following is considered the mainstay for improving hypotensive episodes:
a. vasopressors
b. inotropes
c. fluids
d. catecholamines
c. fluids
Which of the following is not considered an inotropic agent>
a. dobuatemine
b. milrinone
c. digoxine
d. inamrinone
a. dobuatemine
Your patient is suffering from heart failure secondary to decreased contractlity and has a confirmed severe allergy to sulfites. Which of the following inotropic medications would you not recommend?
a. Dobutamine
c. Milrinone
c. Digoxin
d. Inamrinone
a. Dobutamine
Your patient requires a dose of adenosine for confirmed SVT. At present his only line is a peripheral IV in the right arm. How should you proceed?
a. slowly administer the dose over 30 seconds
b. administer the dose quickly and immediately follow with a saline flush
c. hold the patients right arm in an upright position while administering the dose
d. Both a and c
d. Both a and c
The most important factorin the management of sudden cardiac death is:
a. age of the patient
b. the underlying disease process
c. timely/efficient CPR and defibrillation
d. fluid status
c. timely/efficient CPR and defibrillation
Your patient is 67-year-old homelessmale who suffers from malnutrition. His labs show that he suffers from hypomagnesemia. What arrhythmia should you be on the lookout for until a dose of magnesium sulfate can be administered?
a. VF
b. AF
c. Torsades de pointes
d. Asystole
c. Torsades de pointes
Which cardiac agent may be administered endotracheally?
a. lidocaine
b. epinephrine
c. atropine
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Epinephrine stimulates both α and β receptors found in the vasculature. True or false
True
Isoproterenol (Isuprel) functions solely as a β agonist. True or false
True
Dopamine administered in the range of 1 to 5 ug/kg/min stimulates receptors in the splachnic and renal arterial beds, thereby increasing blood flow to these organs. True or false
false
Adverse effects of dopamine include tachyarrhythmias, ectopic beat, palpations, and decreased perfusion. True or false
True
Vasopressin exhibits not only a pressor effect, but also causes water retention which makes it a valuable drug in the treatment of septic shock. True or false
True
Is norepinepinephrine a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
catecholamine
Is isoproterenol a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
catecholamine
Is dobutamine a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
inotropic
Is dopamine a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
catecholamine
Is digoxine a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
inotropic
Is vasopressin a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
catecholamine
Is milrinone a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
inotropic
Is lidocaine a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
antiarrhythmic
Is procainamide a catecholamine, antiarrhythmic, or inotropic?
antiarrhythmic