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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Drugs that depress the CNS are referred to as ...
sedatives or hypnotics – depends on the dosage.
Sedatives reduce nervousness, excitability, and irritability with or without causing sleep?
Hypnotics cause ________
_____________ were once the standard treatment for insomnia and sedation, but because of their habit-forming tendencies and the introduction of benzodiazepines, only a few are used in practice today
What is the most commonly prescribed barbiturate? What is it used for?
o Phenobarbital: Used for prevention of seizures and fever-induced convulsions. Also useful in the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates, and for treatment of Gilbert’s syndrome.
How do barbituates work?
o By reducing the nerve impulses traveling to the cerebral cortex.
o They inhibit nerve impulses by potentiating the action of the inhibitory amino acid: GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
In general, barbiturates are used as ....
hypnotics, sedatives, and anticonvulsants. Also used for anesthesia during surgical procedures.
What are the main adverse effects of barbituates?
The main adverse effects include: drowsiness, lethargy, dizziness, hangover and paradoxical restlessness or excitement & they have chronic effects on normal sleep.
Name the main muscle relaxants...
baclofen (Lioresal, Atrofen), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
Muscle relaxants are also used in the management of spasticity associated with which chronic disorders?
o Multiple sclerosis
o Cerebral palsy
o Rheumatic disorders and cerebral lesions
o Huntington’s chorea
o Parkinson’s
What is the mechanism of action for muscle relaxants?
These drugs either depress nerve transmission in the spinal cord or enhance GABA’s inhibitory effect of the spinal cord. What does GABA stand for?
o GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid – an inhibitory amino acid
What does GABA stand for?
GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid – an inhibitory amino acid
muscle relaxant side effects
o Dizziness
o Drowsiness
o Euphoria
o Fatigue
o Lightheadedness
o Muscle Weakness
What are some antiepileptics drugs?
phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), diazepam (Valium)
A convulsion is ...
characterized by involuntary spasmodic contractions of any or all voluntary muscles throughout the body.
A seizure is ...
a brief episode of abnormal electrical activity in the nerve cells of the brain.
Mechanism of Action and Drug Effects of AEDs?
Overall effect of AEDs is that they stabilize neurons and keep them from becoming hyperexcited and generating excessive nerve impulses to adjacent neurons.
What is the name of the common seizure disorder that is a life-threatening emergency?
Status epilepticus - characterized by generalized tonic-clinic convulsions that occur in succession. Patients typically do not regain consciousness between convulsions.
What is used to treat status epileptus?
o Diazepam (Valium)
What is a contraindication for Diazepam?
What is “Dilantin facies”?
Appearance caused by long-term phenytoin therapy. Hypertrophy of subQ facial tissue
3 classes of antiparkinsonian agents:
selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), dopaminergics, and anticholinergics.
List three catecholamines:
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine
What is the “cheese effect” seen with non-selective MAOIs?
Nonselective MAOI’s interact with tyramine-containing foods such as cheese, red wine, beer and yogurt, because of their inhibitory activity against MAO-A. This can result in severe hypertension.
Often times, interactions with MAOIs cause ...
fatal hypertensive episodes.
The blood-brain barrier does not allow outside ______ through. However, it will let _________ to enter the brain, and then converts it into dopamine and releases as needed. This corrects the imbalance.

Anticholinergics: benztropine mesylate (Cogentin). Mechanism of Action and Drug Effects
Because there are a reduced number of dopamine-producing nerves with PD, acetylcholine accumulates (inverse relationship). Too much acetylcholine can cause muscle rigidity (cogwheel rigidity). Therefore, anticholinergics work to block acetylcholine.
Anticholinergics are used as antidyskinetic agents in PD. What two symptoms of PD does it treat?
o Muscle Rigidity
o Lack of movement??
Mydriasis =
dilation of the pupils
Anticholinergics: Side Effects and Adverse Effects
Some include confusion, constipation, urinary retention, and mydriasis.
Some include confusion, constipation, urinary retention, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupils).
What happens to the therapeutic effects of anticholinergics with antacids?
o Antacids alter gastric pH and reduce the absorption. This decreases the therapeutic effects of anticholinergic drugs.
CNS stimulants mimic the actions of the sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine. For this reason they are often referred to as ...
sympathomimetic drugs.
In general, what do CNS stimulants do?
o Stimulate specific areas of the brain or spinal cord
o Most act in the brain to enhance the activity of one or more of the excitatory neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)
What are two of the oldest known stimulants?
o Cocaine
o Amphetamine
How does Ritalin work?
o Increases the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine by increasing their release and blocking their reuptake. This keeps them in contact with their receptors longer and lengthens their duration of action.
How does Meridia work?
o Suppresses appetite control centers in the brain, and may also increase the body’s basal metabolic rate, mobilize adipose tissue stores, enhance cellular glucose uptake and reduce fat absorption.
o Enhances dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin activity in the brain by inhibiting their reuptake.
o Leads to enhanced feelings of satiety
o Used in patients with a BMI of 30 or more (or 27 with other risk factors)
How does Imitrex work?
o Stimulates serotonin receptors in the brain. This causes vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries.
o Reduces production of inflammatory neuropeptides
o Uses abortive drug therapy (treats a headache that has already started)