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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
water soluble vitamins
-act as specific conenzymes
-B-complex:thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, cobalamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid

-C=reducing agent
Fat soluble
-A and D are for hormones
-E is and antioxidant
-K is a cofactor
thiamine B1
-needed for CHO metabolism

-deficiency (beri beri)= poor memory, peripheral neuritis skeletal muscle atrophy, deficiency often occurs in alcoholism
riboflavin B2
-needed for respiratory flavoproteins

-deficiency = stomatitis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis. Isolated riboflavin deficiency is rare
-usually occurs in combination w/ deficiency for the other water-soluble vitamins
niacin, nicotinic acid (B3)
-needed for formation of NAD and NADP for oxidation-reduction reactions

-deficiency = pellegra = 3D's = dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia
pyridoxine (B6)
-pyridoxine (B6) - a coenzyme for many reactions

-deficiency = seborrheic skin lesions, anemia, peripheral neuritis and convulsions in children

-Both isoniazid and hydralazine have anti- B6 properties and can cause symptoms of B6 deficiency
cobalamin (B12)
-cobalamin (B12) - needed for formation methylmalonyl CoA and succinyl CoA and folate regeneration

-deficiency = megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented polymorphonuclear leukocytes, neurological syndrome = paresthesias in distal extremities, memory loss, sensory disturbances, spastic ataxia caused by demyelination of the nerve fibers of the dorsolateral spinal column
pantothenic acid
-pantothenic acid - needed for CoA synthesis

-deficiency is rare, but it does aoccur in patients with alcoholism = neuromuscular degeneration, adrenal insufficiency and "burning feet" syndrome
folic acid
-folic acid - needed for synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF), and acceptor of one-carbon units; THF needed for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids

-deficiency = megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects
vitamin C
-needed for collagen synthesis

-deficiency = scurVy = loose teeth, gingivitis, hemorrhage, swollen joints
retinol (vitamin A)
-retinol (vitamin A) - needed for retinal photoreceptors, epithelial differentiation.

-deficiency = skin lesions, night blindness, xerophthalmia (dry cornea), corneal ulceration.

-excess = dry pruritic skin, hyperostosis, anorexia, headache, teratogenesis
vitamin D - D2 from plants; D3 from animals; D3 also synthesized in skin
- needed for formation of 1,25 dihydroxy D3 which promotes GI Ca++ absorption and osteolclast activity and decreases renal Ca++ excretion

-deficiency = rickets (children) and osteomalacia (adults

-excess = renal damage, calcification of soft tissue including the CV system
vitamin K1 (phytonadione)
-vitamin K1 (phytonadione) - needed for post-translational gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues of clotting factors 2, 7, 9 and 10 to make them active

-Used an an antidote to warfarin

-deficiency = hemorrhage