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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the routes of drug administration
enteral (oral, sublingual, rectal)
parenteral (intravascular- IV or IA)
other (inhalation, intranasal,intrathecal /intraventricular,topical,transdermal)
effect of pH on drug absorption
henderson-hasselbach equation:
ph=pKa+log(non-protonated species/(protonated species)
is fraction of administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation (70%)
(= AUC oral/AUC injected x100)
factors that influence bioaivailibilty
- first-pass hepatic metabolism (eg propanolol,
- solubility of drug (eg hydrophilic & very hydrophobic poorly absorbed)
chemical instability (eg penicillin G, Insulin)
- nature of drug formation (particle salt, salt form
if drugs show comparable bioavaililibity and similar times to achieve peak blood concentration
therapeutic equivalence
have comparable efficacy and safety
drug distribution depends on
blood flow
capillary permeability (capillary structure & drug structure)
binding of drugs to proteins
blood brain barrier
-lipid soluble durgs readily penetrate into the CNS
-ionized or polar drugs fail
Volume of Distribution (Vd)
Vd = D/C (in absence of elimination)
D = total amount of drug in the body

C = Plasma concentration of the drug
Binding capacity of albumin
low capacity =(1 drug molecule per albumin
high capacity =(a number of drug molecules per albumin molecule)
Class I drugs
= if the dose of drug is less than the binding capacity of albumin
Class II drugs
= if the dose of drug is greater than the binding capacity of albumin
drug displacement
= if class I and class II drugs are given simultaneously
drug metabolism
- first-order
v= Vmax[C]/Km+[C]
-Zero-order (aspirin, ethanol, phenytoin)
v = Vmax[C]/[C]=Vmax
reactions of drug metabolism
Phase I
- phase I utilizing the p450 system
-phase I not involving P450
Phase II
- consist of conjugatioin reactions