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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chemical cellular communication
neurotransmitter
electrical cellular communication
1) passive conduction
2) active conduction
Boutons
nerve terminals
cellular charges
due to differential ionic concentrations
normal resting potential
-80 mv (most cells)
Na
IC: 15 mM EC: 145 mM
K
IC: 145 mM EC: 5 mM
Cl
IC: 10 mM EC: 150 mM
Ca
IC: 0.0001 mM EC: 2 mM
primary contribution to resting charge
K channels
(only channel open at rest)
dendritic conduction
passive electrical process
axonal conduction
1) active electrical process
2) involves voltage-gated Na and K channels (some Ca also)
3) Na-K ATPase to restore chemical equilibrium
4) signal initiated at axon hillock by internally ligand-gated Na channels
5) Myelinated vs Non-myelinated axons
factors leading to increased conduction rates
1) myelination
- decreased capacitance
- saltatory conduction
2) lower resting potential
3) increasing Na channel density
4) increasing axonal diameter
synaptic transmission
1) Ca channel stimulation
2) Ca released from storage in Sarcoplasm
3) increased Ca leads to biochemical change allowing fusion of vesicles with inner cell membrane
4) Ca rapidly removed back into sarcoplasm
5) fused vesicles open to synaptic space, releasing contents into synaptic cleft
6) vesicles reformed by endocytotic process, and can then be refilled
vesicles
contain 1 quanta of neurotransmitter
5,000-10,000 molecules neurotransmitter
other compounds also in vesicles