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19 Cards in this Set

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What is autonomic pharmacology?
Autonomic pharmacology is the study of drugs, acting on receptors in organs and tissues innervated by the ANS
What is the autonomic nervous system?
ANS is a branch of the PNS innervating smooth muscle tissue, glands and organs whose activity is not under direct conscious control (ie involuntary)
What does the PNS consist of?
The PNS consists of the ANS (involuntary) and the Somatic System (voluntary)
What are the two branches of the ANS?
Parasympathetic (digestion and energy conservation) system and sympathetic (flight/fight) system
What is the parasympathetic system also called?
Tropotrophic system (ie promotes growth)
What is the sympathetic system also called?
Ergotrophic system (ie expends energy)
How does the parasympathetic system affect the eye, cardiovascular system, and digestion/excretion?
Miosis (pupillary constriction) of the eye.
Decrease in BP and HR.
Increase in digestion/excretion
How does the sympathetic system affect the eye, cardiovascular system, and digestion/excretion?
Mydriosis (pupillary dilation) of the eye.
Increase in BP and HR.
Decrease in digestion/excretion
Name three features of the parasympathetic nervous sytem.
Consists of a cranial outflow (Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10) and sacral outflow (S2-S3)
Consists of long preganglionic fibres and short postganglionic fibres
Has a 1:1 ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibres
Name the four cranial nerves of the parasympathic nervous system.
CN 3 - Oculomotor
CN 7 - Facial
CN 9 - Glossopharyngeal
CN 10 - Vagus
Name three features of the sympathetic nervous system.
Consists of a thoracolumbar outflow
(T1 - L2).
Consists of short preganglionic fibres and long postganglionic fibres.
Has a 1:20 ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibres (ie one preganglionic fibre causes wide, diffuse effect for fight/flight response).
In addition to other tissues, affects adrenal medulla, sweat glands, and skeletal muscle (somatic)
What molecule is this?
Catechole
Explain the synthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Tyrosine -> DOPA -> Dopamine ->
Noradrenaline -> Adrenaline

(tyrosine to DOPA is a hydroxylation rxn by tyrosine hydroxylase, DOPA to dopamine is a decarboxylation rxn by DOPA decarboxylase, dopamine to noradrenaline is a beta-hydroxylation rxn by Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, noradrenaline to adrenaline is a methylation rxn by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase)
In the synthesis of noradrenaline and adrenaline, what is the slowest step (rate limiting step)?
The first rxn (tyrosine to DOPA) is the slowest (rate limiting) step (because tyrosine hydroxylase is a slow enz)
Cortisol controls which enz in the synthesis of noradrenaline and adrenaline?
Cortisol controls phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase.
(with hypercortisolism, the higher cortisol levels result in higher levels of phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase, therefore higher levels of adrenaline)
Name the two enzymes that metabolize catecholamines and describe them.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
Found in the cytosol of cells all over the body (except for sympathetic nerve endings/terminals)

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
Found in the mitochondria of cells all over the body (including sympathetic nerve endings/terminals, so found everywhere)
Termination of transmitter action is carried out by which process?
Reuptake (mainly) terminates transmission action (by an amine pump). (But, some NA diffuses away and is metabolized by COMT and MAO)
Dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline have a great or low amount of first pass metabolism?
Dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline have a great amount of first pass metabolism (b/c of the presence of COMT and MAO in the gut and liver). Therefore, they have almost zero oral bioavailability, so no or little drug reaches systemic circulation
Noncatecholamine sympathomimetic drugs have a great or low amount of first pass metabolism and give some examples of these drugs.
Noncatecholamine sympathomimetic drugs have a low amount of first pass metabolism (b/c they are not sensitive to COMT and MAO). Therefore, they have a high oral bioavailability, so easily reach systemic circulation
Ex: Ephedrine, Amphetamine