Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cholestyramine (Questran)
"Bile Acid Binding Resins"-LDL
stop bile acids from re-entering the gut via entero-hepatic circulation- body senses low LDL- upregulates LDLR, endogenous cholesterol is used to form bile acids and therefore blood LDL falls
Limited effect
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
"Statin"-LDL first line Tx
act by reversibly inhibiting HMG CoA Reductase (rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis)- decrease production on endogenous Cholesterol and increases LDLR expression which lowers serum LDL

25-50% reduction

* does NOT work in familial hypercholesterolemia (mutations of the LDLR gene) or Familial Defective Apoplipoprotein B (defect in the ApoB ligand for LDL, which prevents binding of LDL to the LDLR)
Ezetimibe (Zetia)
selectively inhibiting uptake of cholesterol from the intestinal lumen (unknown mechanism-inhibits the active transport mechanism in the enterocytes?)
Nicotinic Acid (Niacin)
acts in the liver to inhibit triglyceride synthesis

reduces VLDL production and secretion, also increases the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
*Additionally it increases HDL
Gemfibrozil (Lopid)
Fibrate derivatives- "PPAR agonists"- TG
increase the synthesis of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)- act by activating PPAR_ nuclear receptor
Omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor)
found in oily fish- or use a combination of eicosaphentaenoic (EPA) acid and docosahexanenoic (DHA) acids- TG
activates the PPAR_ recpetor
“Normal” Lipoprotein Levels
Total Cholesterol: < 200 mg/dL
LDL: < 100 mg/dL
HDL: > 40-45 mg/dL
TG: < 150 mg/dL.
Theropeudic options for HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA
1) Diet: eat less fat and cholesterol.
2) Exercise – via activation of LPL (unknown mech)
3) Control diseases that derange lipid metabolism (thyroid disorders / diabetes mellitus).
4) Discontinue drugs that negatively affect lipid metabolism
5) Drug therapy - currently blocking LDL or TG, future is to increase HDL
combination drug of ezetimibe and a statin- LDL
acts via both pathways to further decrease serum cholesterol