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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a persistent elevation of arterial blood pressure
hypertension
what is the jnc 7's definition of normal BP?
<120 / < 80
what is the jnc 7's definition of "pre-hypertension"
120-139 / 80-89
what is the jnc 7's definition of Stage I HTN?
140-159 / 90-99
what is the jnc 7's definition of Stage II HTN?
>160 / >100
why is HTN so dangerous?
it damages the vasculature and causes end organ damage
what percentage of the population of americans with HTN have secondary HTN?
< 5%.
what are some etiologies of secondary HTN?
pheochromocytoma, Cushing's, hyperthyroid, hyperparathyroid, pregnancy, chronic renal disease, renovascular disease, steroids, nsaid's, alcohol
what is the number one risk factor for HTN?
diabetes
what is the number two risk factor for HTN?
obesity
what are some risk factors for HTN?
age (male: >55, female: >65)
increased LDL/ decreased HDL, GFR < 60, family Hx, tobacco, physical inactivity
what are the 3 main organs that are damaged as a result of HTN?
heart, kidney, brain
what are some of the recommended lifestyle modifications according to the JNC 7?
loose 10 lbs, limit alcohol intake, increase aerobic exercise, reduce Na intake, cease smoking, reduce intake of saturated fats and chol.
what is the diuretic of choice for HTN?
thiazide
which diuretic works at the distal convoluted tube, increases Na, Cl and H2o excretion and reduces the excretion of Ca++?
thiazide diuretics
which diuretic is not reccommended for patients with gout as one of its' side effects causes hyperuricemia?
thiazide diuretics
which diuretic is good for a patient with osteoporosis?
thiazide diuretics, ( ca++ excretion is reduced)
what is the common dose for HCTZ?
12.5-25mg QD. thiazide diuretic
what is the common dose/range for chlorthalidone?
12.5-50mg QD. thiazide diuretic
what is the common dose/range for indapamide?
1.25-5mg QD. thiazide diuretic.
what is the common dose/range for metolazone? and which p is it most commonly used for?
2.5-10mg QD. thiazide diuretic. MC used for p c CHF due to its' protective qualities to the LV. (vasodilator properties)
which diuretic is the strongest?
loop diuretics
what is the MOA of loop diuretics?
they work primarily of the ascending loop of henle, inhibiting the Na-K-2Cl symporter.
which diuretic increases the excretion of Na, Cl, K, H20, and Ca in large amounts?
loop diuretics
which diuretic typically needs a K supplement of 10-20 mEq QD?
loop diuretics
what is the common dose/range for furosemide?
(Lasix) 40-240mg BID-TID. loop diuretic. IV or PO
what is the common dose/range for bumetanide?
(Bumex) 0.5-4mg BID-TID. loop diuretic. IV or PO
what is the common dose/range for Torsemide?
(Demadex) 5-100mg BID-TID.
what is the common dose/range for Ethacrynic Acid?
(etacrine) 25-100mg BID-TID. used for patients with true allergy to SULFA.
what are the two groups of potassium sparing diuretics?
1. inhibitors of the renal epithelial Na Channels (acts on late distal tube
2.aldosterone antagonists
what is considered to be the weakest diuretic?
Potassium-sparing diuretics. usually used in combination with loops or thiazides. not used as initial tx.
what is the diuretic of choice to use for a patient with edema secondary to hyperaldosteronism?
potassium-sparing diuretics
what is the MC dose/range for amiloride?
5-10 mg QD. K sparing diuretic
what is the MC dose/range for spironalactone?
25-100mg QD. K sparing diuretic. causes gynecomastia.
what is the MC dose/range for Triameterene?
25-100 QD. K sparing diuretic.
what is the MC dose/range for Elperelone?
25-100mg QD. K sparing diuretic.
what are considered great drugs (esty's favorite ) for HTN, MI, CHF?
Beta-Blockers
what is the MOA of Beta-Blockers?
reduce cardiac output through negative chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart. Additionally BB blockade beta receptors at the JGA and decrease the release of RENIN.
Beta-Blockers cross the blood brain barrier. T/F?
true. they have CENTRAL ACTION.``
where do selective Beta blockers work?
Beta-1. on the heart. good for use on asthma/COPD p.
what are some examples of nonselective BB?
propranolol, nadolo, pindolol
does propanolol cross the blood brain barrier?
yes. it is lipophilic.
what is ISA?
intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity. They decrease BP with out decreasing the HR at rest.
what are some examples of some selective BB?
atenolol, metoprolol succinate, acetobutolol, bisoprolol (in europe)
what are the FDA indications for uses of BB?
HTN, angina, arrythmias (because of their negative inotropic/chronotropic activities) MI, CHF.
what is the MC dose/range for Propranolol?
40-480mg BID. nonselective Beta-Blocker.
what is the MC dose/range for atenolol?
25-100 BID. selective BB.
what is the MC dose/range for acebutolol?
200-800mg QD. selective BB.
what is the MC dose/range for metoprolol?
50-300mg BID. selective BB.
what is the MC dose/range for Pindolol?
10-60mg BID. nonselective BB.
what is the MC dose/range for Carvedilol?
6.25-50mg BID. (Coreg) MC for CHF. nonselective BB.