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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain the major responsibilities of a physician in prescribing a drug
a. Mechanism of action

b. Indications- When to use. Is this particular use approved for this drug by FDA?

c. Contraindications

d. Adverse effects (side effects)- Common cause for non-compliance
Explain the interrelationship between pharmacodynamics and pharmokinetics
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the effects of drugs on tissues.

Pharmacokinetics is the study of the effects of tissues on drugs.
List patient factors that can effect drug actions
b.Body weights
d.Pathological conditions
e.Pharmacogenetics- polymorphic proteins can result in idosyncratic drug reactions
repeated administration at a given dose results in decreased effects
Pharmacodynamic tolerance
reduction in normal reactivity of the drug receptor
Pharmacokinetic tolerance
drug reduces its own absorption and/or elimination
very rapid, acute tolerance
Additive effect-
(+) when combined effect of two different drugs equals the sum of their individual effects (typical with opiods)
Potentiation (or synergy)
(+) when combined effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects of two drugs
Pharmacological antagonism
(-) a drug blocks a receptor that another drug activates
Physiological antagonism
(-) two drugs act at different sites to produce opposite effects (norep at adrenergic and hist at other receptors)
Biochemical antagonism
(-) a drug reduces the effective concentration of another drug (warfarin and phenobarbitol)
Chemical antagonism
(-) two drugs combine to form an inactive product (lead poisoning treated with chelator)
Explain the concept of bioavailability
rate and extent of drug absorption into the bloodstream
Explain the differences between generic and proprietary drugs, and describe the process of naming drugs
proprietary drugs are names copyrighted by a single manufacturer and one drug can have several trademark/proprietary names, whereas one drug can have only one generic name.
Phase I
Is it safe?

i. Pharmokinetics
ii. Non-toxic
Phase II
Does it work in patients?

i. Efficacy
Phase III
Does it work, double blind?

i. Higher numbers of patients
Phase IV
Post-marketing surveillance

i. Critical period
ii. Look for rare adverse effects
iii. Really high numbers of patients
List the responsibilites of the FDA
a. Must prove that a drug is both safe and effective before approving it

b. Must specify the conditions for which the drug is approved

c. Approval of all medical devices

d. Post-marketing reviews of adverse effects

e. CANNOT regulate herbals and nutritional supplements