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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which one of the following antibiotics exhibits a concentration-dependent pharmacodynamic behaviour?
a. Carbenicillin
b. Tylosin
c. Tilmicosin
d. Amikacin
e. Rifampin
Which one of the following antimicrobials is known to accumulate in kidney causing renal toxicity, especially in dehydrated patients?
a. Amoxicillin
b. Ceftiofur
c. Gentamicin
d. Penicillin V
e. Clindamicin
Which of the following antibiotics would you select to treat an anaerobic infection by Bacteroides in cattle?
a. Gentamicin
b. Metronidazole
c. Sulfonamide + Trimethoprim
d. Clindamycin
e. None of the above
Which of the following would be adequate for the empirical treatment of an E. Coli ascending urinary tract infection (UTI) in a pregnant mare?
a. Amikacin
b. Potentiated ampicillin
c. Enrofloxacin
d. a, b or c
e. a or b
Which one of the following statements about aminoglycosides is entirely correct?
a. Aminoglycosides are polar compounds with small volumes of distribution and fast elimination.
b. Aminoglycosides are highly lipophilic antimicrobials that distribute to kidneys causing renal toxicity
c. Although aerobe organisms can be susceptible to the action of aminoglycosides in susceptibility tests, they tend to be resistant in vivo
d. Aminoglycosides are bacteriostatic drugs that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
e. Aminoglycosides are primarily used to treat infections by anaerobic Gram (-) bacteria
Which one of the following statements about alcohol-based antiseptics is FALSE?
a. They are lipid solvents
b. They are protein denaturants
c. They are bactericidal
d. They are virucidal for some virus families
e. They have sporocidal activity
Which of the following disinfectants CANNOT be used as an antiseptic in animals?
a. Ethyl alcohol
b. Glutaraldehyde
c. Chlorhexidine
d. Iodine (Iodophor)
e. Isopropyl alcohol
Which of the following antiseptics would you use during surgical site preparation where the presence of wound debris is a concern?
a. Ethyl alcohol
b Glutaraldehyde
c. Chlorhexidine
d. Benzalkonium chloride
e. Sodium hypochlorite
Which of the following chemical agents is considered the most appropriate antiseptic for small skin wounds? a. Glutaraldehyde in
a 2% solution
b. Chlorhexidine gluconate
c. Iodophors in spray
d. Ethylene oxide in aqueous solution
e. New Orleans Bourbon
Which one of the following agents would be the best choice to disinfect livestock premises that are emptied for 48 hours between consecutive batches (all-in all-out) and that require elimination of bacterial spores?
a. Benzalkonium chloride
b. Sodium hypochlorite
c. Chloroxylenols
d. 5% Formaldehyde
e. 50% Isopropyl alcohol
When are susceptibility tests necessary in antimicrobial therapy?
a. Always
b. When culture and identification of the microorganism is possible
c. When cellular debris is present at the infection site
d. When bacterial susceptibility is not predictable
e. When the infection is by Gram (-) bacteria
Which one of the following statements best defines the concept of breakpoint within the context of antimicrobial susceptibility testing?
a. Breakpoint is the minimum concentration of an antimicrobial that inhibits the growth of a microorganism in vitro
b. Breakpoint is a susceptibility boundary that the MIC is compared to in order to determine whether a bacterial isolate is susceptible or resistant
c. Breakpoint is the therapeutic target for antimicrobial administration
d. Breakpoint is a concentration at which bacteria are always susceptible
e. Breakpoint is the maximum concentration of an antimicrobial that can be achieved in the animal before toxicity appears.
Which among the following clinical situations will warrant using a bactericidal rather than a bacteriostatic antibiotic:
a. A viral gastrointestinal infection in a dog that causes dehydration, anemia, neutropenia, and is followed by a secondary bacterial infection.
b. A bacterial infection of the urinary tract in a dehydrated animal
c. When the MIC is close to the breakpoint
d. Acute posttraumatic osteomyelitis
e. a and d.
Which of the following have been described as mechanisms of bacterial resistance?
a. Chemical modification of the bacterial target of the antimicrobial
b. Enzymatic inactivation of the antimicrobial
c. Increased drug efflux from the bacterial cell
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c
Which one of the following statements about MIC and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) is true?
a. The MBC is usually lower than the MIC
b. The MBC is always higher than the breakpoint for resistance
c. A low MBC/MIC ratio is typical of bactericidal antibiotics
d. The MIC is always lower than the breakpoint for resistance
e. The MBC is typically much larger (10-fold or more) than the MIC
A doberman pinscher is brought to your practice. Initial examination reveals depression, anorexia, and fever. Close examination reveals a chronic pyodermatitis possibly caused by the Gram (+) aerobic organism Staphylococcus intermedius. Production of β-lactamase is highly likely. Which of the following would be a correct choice for empirical therapy?
a. Penicillin
b. Methicillin
c. Sulbactam
d. Metronidazole
e. Carbenicillin
Which one of the following antibiotics would you use to treat a bone infection by Gram + bacteria and anaerobic bacteria in a dog?
a. Amikacin
b. Enrofloxacin
c. Sulfadiazine
d. Gentamicin
e. Amoxicillin
Which one of the following antimicrobials is likely to be effective against Enterococcus?
a. Amphotericin B
b. Vancomycin
c. Enrofloxacin
d. Sulfonamide-Trimethoprim combination
e. Gentamicin
A cutaneous infection in a dog is caused by Staphylococcus. Which one of the following antibiotics or combinations would be your first choice for oral administration?
a. Carbenicillin
b. Amoxicillin + Amikacin
c. Cefadroxil
d. Imipenem
e. Ceftiofur
Which of the following drugs act by disrupting the bacterial cell wall?
a. Vancomycin
b. Clavulanic acid
c. Bacitracin
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c
Which of the following statements about the enzyme topoisomerase IV is correct?
a. Topoisomerase IV is added to Imipenem to prevent renal toxicity
b. Topoisomerase IV is one of the molecular targets of action of gentamicin
c. Topoisomerase IV blocks the action of fluoroquinolones
d. Enrofloxacin inhibits the action of this enzyme
e. Ciprofloxacin kills susceptible bacteria by increasing the activity of this enzyme
Which of the following combinations of antimicrobials is considered synergistic?
a. Enrofloxacin + Oxytetracycline
b. Sulfadiazine + Clavulanic acid
c. Sulbactam + Trimethoprim
d. Chlortetracycline + Penicillin
e. None of the above
Bacteroides fragilis is likely to be sensitive to which one of the following antimicrobials?
a. Ceftiofur
b. Marbifloxacin
c. Clindamycin
d. Sulfadiazine
e. Chlortetracycline
Which one of the following antibiotics exhibits a concentration-dependent pharmacodynamic behaviour?
a. Carbenicillin
b. Doxycicline
c. Tilmicosin
d. Ampicillin
e. Orbifloxacin
You are treating an infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a dog. A tube dilution test reveals an MIC of 0.5 µg/ml for a fluoroquinolone. What would be the daily oral dose (Dose24) needed to treat this infection if the bioavailability (F) of the drug is 95% and the drug systemic clearance (Cl) in dogs is 0.1 L/hr/kg? (Units are already adjusted, so no need to worry about them. Plasma protein binding for this fluoroquinolone is low). (Hint: Optimum AUIC24 = 133; Dose24 × F = Cl × AUC24)
a. 0.9 mg/kg
b. 3 mg/kg
c. 7 mg/kg
d. 13 mg/kg
e. 27 mg/kg
Which one of the following statements about tetracyclines is NOT true?
a. Tetracyclines are broad spectrum antibiotics
b. Tetracyclines are among the safest oral antibiotics for horses
c. Tetracyclines are used to treat respiratory infections
d. Bacterial resistance to tetracyclines in the environment is generally high
e. Tetracyclines are useful to treat intracellular infections.
Which one of the following antimicrobials is characterized by a wide distribution in the body?
a. Gentamicin
b. Cloxacillin
c. Cephalexin (1st generation cephalosporin)
d. Chloramphenicol
e. Ampicillin
Which one of the following statements regarding Chloramphenicol is true?
a. It can be prescribed to treat anaerobic infections in swine
b. It is highly lipophilic and therefore can be used to treat anaerobic meningitis in cattle.
c. The enzyme chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), produced constitutively by Gram (-) organisms, can enhance the action of chloramphenicol.
d. It can cause dose-related aplastic anemia in humans.
e. It can cause dose-related bone-marrow depression in cats and humans.
Which of the following is the main indication for pirlymicin?
a. Feed additive in swine to treat GI infections
b. Parenteral treatment of keratoconjunctivitis in cats
c. Treatment of erythromycin-induced vomition in dogs
d. Treatment of Gram (+) mastitis in dairy cows
e. Treatment of respiratory infections by Pasteurella in cattle
Which of the following therapies is/are correct?
a. Oral cefazolin to treat a bacterial meningitis in a dog
b. Intravenous (slow) oxytetracycline to treat Ehrlichiosis in a horse
c. Tylosin to treat an UTI infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a dog
d. Oral Lincomycin in cattle to treat a respiratory infection by Mycoplasma.
e. b and d.