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10 Cards in this Set

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What effect does renal insufficiency have on meperidine?
Meperidine is cleared by the kidney --> toxic levels
Why does continued use of Meperidine require an increase?
Meperidine: Habituation: Tolerance built up with large doses at short intervals; downregulate responses and therefore do not get the same effect.
In Meperidine use, an increase in the toxic metabolite can induce seizure, what pharmacokinetic principle is this?
Meperidine poor renal clearance: Accumulation of toxic metabolite --> leads to seizure
What is the indication for Meperidine?
Meperidine: Tx: pain… Opoid with anti-muscarinic effects
What are the indication for Phenytoin? Mechanism of Action? Rout of admission?
Phenytoin: Tx: Anticonvulsant, (2) Mechanism of Action: reduces seizure propagation by stabilizing inactive state of Na channel… (3) oral/parenterna
What is the order of clearance for Phenytoin? And what is the consequence of this? What is another reason that phenytoin has lessened effects on the brain? What precautions must be takent to avoid overdose?
Phenytoin, (1) once the liver is saturated becomes zero order clearance --> this greatly increases the half-life of the drug… (2) Distribution to fat and muscle…(3) give incremental small dose: 150 mg/ 8 hrs
How is first order clearance different from zero order clearance?
In first order clearance, the drug is cleared at a constant proportion over time…
Is Phenytoin hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Where is it metabolized? Is it bound to plasma protein?
Phenytoin: (1) hydrophobic --> enters brain (2) liver… (3) bound to plasma proteins
What is the indication for Itraconazole?
Antifungal
review Diltiazem
Review Diltiazem