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62 Cards in this Set

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What is the main neurotransmitter in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems?
sympathetic=NE… parasympathetic=Ach
What is the neurotransmitter found at nicotinic receptors?
Ach
What is the neurotransmitter seen at muscarinic receptors?
Ach
Besides NE, what other type of NT is released from the adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine (Note: Epi is converted from NE)
All sympathetic autonomic nerves use NE as a NT, except which two?
(1) Sweat glands are sympathetic, with Ach activated muscarinic receptors... (2) In the kidney you find sympathetic Dopamine receptors
None
What NT and receptor is seen in parasympathetic nerves?
Ach - muscarinic
What NT and receptor type is seen in skeletal muscle?
Ach - Nicotinic
which NT and receptor type do preganglionic (and the adrenal medulla) use?
Ach - Nicotinic
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: radial muscle of the IRIS (PUPIL)
radial muscle of the IRIS (PUPIL):

Sympathetic: ∂1-contraction --> dilation of pupil (mydriasis)

PS: none for radial muscle

NOTE: Opposed by PS: M3--> contraction of CIRCULAR muscle --> Miosis (constriction of pupil)
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: circular muscle of the IRIS (PUPIL)
circular muscle of the IRIS (PUPIL):

parasympym: M3-contraction --> Miosis: constriction of pupil

NOTE: This opposes the sympathetic contraction of the radial muscle of the iris/pupil --> mydriasis (dilation of the pupil)
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: ciliary muscle of the eye
ciliary muscle of the eye: PS:M3-contraction--> accomodation for close vision… S:ß-relaxation --> lens flattens for far vision
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Heart/sinoatrial node
Heart/sinoatrial node: S:ß1,ß2-accelerates HR… PS:M2-decelerates HR
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Heart/ectopic pacemakers
Heart/ectopic pacemakers: S:ß1ß2-accelerates HR… PS: none
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches:Heart/contractility
branches:Heart/contractility: S:ß1ß2-increases contractility… PS:M2-decreases contractility
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Blood Vessels-skin/splanchnic
Blood Vessels-skin/splanchnic: S:∂-contracts --> little blood to skin or digestive… PS: none

RELAXATION: NONE was given
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Blood Vessels: skeletal
Blood Vessels: skeletal:

Sympathetic Relaxes: ß2 and M

Sympathetic Constriction: ∂

PS: none
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Blood Vessels: endothelium
Blood Vessels: endothelium:

PS:M3: Releases EDRF--> NO causing muscles to relax --> dilation and increased blood flow

Sympathetic: NONE
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Bronchial Smooth Muscle
Bronchial Smooth Muscle: S:ß2-relaxation… PS: M3-contracts
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches:GI Smooth Muscle Walls
GI Smooth Muscle Walls: S: ∂2ß2 --> relaxes… PS: M3--> contracts
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: GI smooth muscle sphincters
GI smooth muscle sphincters: S: ∂1 --> contracts… PS: M3--> relaxes
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: GI Secretions
GI Secretions: S: none… PS: M3-->increases secretions
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: GI Myenteric Plexus
GI Myenteric Plexus: S: none… PS: M1-activates
None
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Genitourinary smooth muscle-bladder wall
Genitourinary smooth muscle-bladder wall: S: ß2-relaxes… PS: M--> contracts
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Genitourinary smooth muscle spinchters
Genitourinary smooth muscle-sphincters: S: ∂1--> contraction… PS: M--> relaxation
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches:Genitourinary smooth muscle-uterus/pregnant
Genitourinary smooth muscle-uterus/pregnant: S: ß2-relaxes, ∂-contracts… PS: M-->contracts
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Penis/seminal vesicles
Genitourinary smooth muscle-Penis/seminal vesicles: S: ∂-ejaculation… PS: M--> erection
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Skin - pilomotor and sweat glands
skin - pilomotor and sweat glands: ALL Sympathetic: ∂ -apocrine and M-thermoregulation (heat relief)
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: liver glucogenesis and glycogenolysis
liver glucogenesis and glycogenolysis: all sympathetic- ß2 and ∂
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: fat cells
fat cells: S: ß3--> lipolysis
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Kidney
Kidney: S: ß1--> renin release
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: Autonomic PS and S
Autonomic PS and S: ∂--> decreases Ach release… PS: M--> decreases NE release
Name the receptor and action of the following organ for both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches: renal vascular smooth muscle
renal vascular smooth muscle: S: D???
What are the 5 potential sites for pharm intervention?
synthesis, storage, release, termination of action, receptor interaction
Where are the 4-sites of action of acetylcholine?
Ach works at all the following: (1) all preganglionic fibers (N) (2) All post-ganglionic fibers in the Parasympathetic system (M), (3) somatic nerves at neuromuscular junction (N), post-ganglionic sympathetic sweat glands (M)
Where is choline transported in to cholinergic cells and what is cholin needed for?
Choline is transported into the cholinergic nerve ending via the sodium dependent choline transporter (CHT)… (2) Choline is needed for Ach synthesis
How does Hemicholinium work?
INHIBITS Ach SYNTHESIS: Hemicholinium inhibits the transport of choline across the sodium dependent choline transporter (CHT) into cholinergic nerve ending (choline is needed to make AcH)
How does Vemisol work?
INHIBITS Ach STORAGE: Vemisicol inhibits the transport of Ach across the vessicle associated transporter (VAT) into storage vesicles
Where is Ach's site of action? What type of half-life is seen with Ach?
(1) Ach: a NT at preganglia for both sympathetic and parasympathetic nicotinic receptors, parasympatheic Post-ganglionic muscarinic receptors, and at NMJ nicotinic receptors… (2) Ach is degraded quickly by Ach-esterase --> short half-life
None
Where does Botulinium toxin work? What are it's uses?
(1)INHIBITS Ach RELEASE: After Ca2+ release, Botulinium inhibits the association of VAMPs on vesicles to SNAPs on the membrane, by cleavage of SNAP… [works @ NMJ, CNS, Preganglion]… (2) Tx: cosmetic, anal spasm, migraine, blepharspasm
How can Ach synthesis be directly inhibited?
SYNTHESIS: ChAT (choline acetyltransferases), which converts AcetylCoA + Choline --> Ach
What is the action of acetylcholinesterases inhibitors?
TERMINATION OF ACTION: AchEI prevent the termination of the action of Ach, thus proloning action
How is Ach involved in negative feedback?
Ach can bind post-synaptic cholinergic (N or M)or pre-synaptic cholinergic receptors
what is the precursor amino acid to NE?
Tyrosine
None
How is tyrosine transported into the noradrenergic ending?
tyrosine is transported via the sodium dependent carrier
None
How does metyrosine work?
Metyrosine, (found at adrenergic presynaptic ending) inhibits Tyrosine Hydrolase, which is the rate limiting step in catecholamine synthesis, the conversion of Tyrosine to Dopa
None
How and where does Resirpine work?
"RESERPINE: (1) inhibits the High affinity carrier for catecholamines into storage vesicles (VMAT) - for NE it specifically inhibits the entry of Dopamine, which will be converted to NE in the vesicle
What converts Dopamine into NE in the vesicles?
dopamine-ß-hydroxylase
What do guanethidine and bretylium do?
Like botulinium toxin, guanethidine and bretylium block the fusion and release of the contents of adrenergic (NE) vesicle to the cleft (SNAPs and VAMPs)

Similar to Botulism toxin in cholinergic ending
None
What do tricyclic antidepressants and cocaine do?
INDIRECT SYMPATHOMIMETIC like tricyclic antidepressants and cocaine, blocks the reuptake of NE from the synaptic cleft from either the pre or post junctional cells at the NE transporter (NET)
None
What is the drug interaction between cocaine and ß-blockers?
ß blocker cause an unopposed ∂ affect --> leads to lowered CO and lack of perfusion
None
What are the three types of regulatory receptors on presynaptic ending?
(1) Heteroreceptors, which regulates the ending by means other than NE (such as DOPAMINE)… (2) Autoreceptors: (a) ∂2-where NE down regulates release of NE (negative FB)… (b) ß-where NE increases the release of NE (positive FB)
None
Besides NET reuptake, what are two other ways that NE is cleared?
(1) glial and smooth muscle cells reuptake-2… (2) MAO and COMT metabolism in the nerve terminals (NE turnover)
What do MAO Inhibitors do? What are the adverse drug rxns of MAO inhibitors? What is the adverse drug interaction between MAO-I and tyramine
MAOI: (1) MAOI inhibit the metabolism and thus increase catacholamine activity… (2) Adverse drug rxn: postural hypotension, hypoglycemia… (3) Drug ixn: MAO-I when given with tyramine it increases BP and causes tachycardia
None
What inhibits tyrosine hydrolase?
metyrosine
None
What would happen if you inhibited phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase?
Inhibiting phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase would inhibit the conversion of NE to epinephrine
In normal neuronal activity, what is the pathway that causes the release of catacholamines from the vesicles to the synapse?
influx of Ca from voltage gated Ca channels and the fusion of the vesicle with the neuronal membrane via VAMPs and SNAPs.
None
(1) What happens as a result of stimulation of the barroreceptors? (PS and P)… (2) what happens if there is decreased baroreceptor stimulation?
(1) PS: via vagus --> decrease HR… S: decreased input to the heart… (2) the reverse --> increased HR
what is the predominant tone of the GI?
parasympathetic
With two exceptions, which is the arm of the autonomic NS that is the predominant tone? What are the 2 exceptions?
(1) the predominant tone is set by the arm that causes contraction or movement, etc. (2) a) Heart: the primary tone is set by the PSNS, which slows the heart… b) Blood vessels: there are no PSN influences here thus the primary tone is the SNS.
What will be affected by drugs that inhibit/or accentuate ganglionic nicotinic receptors?
the predominant tone
What is denervation sensitivity?
it is the up regulation of the receptor-effector system after denervation of tissue causes an increased response to activators… reserpine can also cause this
what is the cholinergic version of reserpine?
vesamicol… both prevent storage and depletes contents of vesicles