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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cabamazepine toxicity
hepatotoxicity
effect of rifampin on estrogen
rifampin caues an increase in estrogen metabolism in the liver (makes estrogen birth control less effective)

(induces CYP450)
drugs with medium Vd distribute in the
extracellular space
drugs with high Vd distribute in the
tissue
Cl =

(2 equations)
Cl = rate of drug elimination/plasma concentration(Cp)

Cl = Vd x Ke
overdose of weak base treated with
ammonium chloride

(weak bases get trapped in acidic environments because they accept a proton)
NT that activates renal vascular smooth muscle

branch of ANS
DA

sympathetic
Receptors and G-protein class
α1 - q
α2 - i
β1 - s
β2 - s
M1 - q
M2 - i
M3 - q
D1 - s
D2 - i
H1 - q
H2 - s
V1 - q
V2 - s

Kiss (qiss) Kick (qiq) until you're Sick (siq) of Sex (sqs)
decreased insulin release caused by stimulation of
α2
increased renin release caused by stimulation of
β1
increased lipolysis caused by stimulation of
β1
increased aqueous humor formation caused by stimulation of
β1
vasodilation caused by stimulation of
β2
increased release of glucagon caused by stimulation of
β2
relaxation of renal vascular smooth muscle caused by stimulation of
D1
NT release by the brain caused by stimulation of
D2
contraction of bronchioles caused by stimulation of
H1
increased vascular smooth muscle contraction is caused by stimulation of
V1
Gq pathway
PLC --> PIP2 --> IP3 + DAG --> Ca2+
function of IP3
increases influx of Ca2+
function of DAG
stimulates PKC
cAMP stimulates
PKA
choline uptake into presynaptic nerve terminals is inhibited by
hemicholinium
packaging of ACh into presynaptic vessicles is inhibited by
vasamicol
conversion of tyrosine to DOPA is inhibited by
metyrosine
entrance of DA into presynaptic vessicle is inhibited by
reserpine
release of NE from presynaptic nerve terminals in inhibited by
guanethidine
release of NE from presynaptic nerve terminals is stimulated by (2)
amphetamine

ephedrine
uptake of NE by presynaptic nerve terminals is inhibited by (2)
cocaine

TCA's
receptors found on presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals (3)
M1
Angiotensin II
α2 (serves as negative feedback)
cholinomimetics:

direct agonists (4)
bethanechol
carbachol
pilocarpine
methacholine
direct-acting cholinomimetic used to treat postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention
bethanechol
direct-acting cholinomimetic used to treat glaucoma

MOA (2)
- open angle glaucoma
- narrow angle glaucoma
carbachol

open angle:

contraction of ciliary muscle --> ↑ aqueous humor outflow --> ↓ IOP

narrow angle:

contraction of pupillary sphincter --> ↑ aqueous humor outflow --> ↓ IOP
direct-acting cholinomimetic that causes perspiration, lacrimation, and salivation
pilocarpine
direct-acting cholinomimetic used in the challenge test for diagnosis of asthma

MOA
methacholine

stimulates muscarinic receptors located in the airway --> bronchoconstriction
cholinomimetics:

indirect agonists (5)
neostigmine
pyridostigmine
physostigmine
edrophonium
echothiophate
neostigmine is used to treat (3)
postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention
myasthenia gravis
reversal of NMJ blockade
neostigmine has no
CNS penetration
pyridostigmine is used to treat
myasthenia gravis
T/F pyridostigmine penetrates the CNS
true
physostigmine is used to treat (2)
glaucoma (crosses BBB)

atropine OD
echothiophate is used to treat
glaucoma
cholinergic receptor blockers (7)
atropine
benztropine
scopolamine
tropicamide
ipratropium
oxybutin
glycopyrrolate
cholinergic receptor blockers that causes mydriasis and cycloplegia (2)
atropine

tropicamide
benztropine is used to treat
PD
methscopolamine is used to treat
urgency in mild cystitis and bladder spasms
oxybutin is used to treat
urgency in mild cystitis and bladder spasms
glycopyrrolate is used to
urgency in mild cystitis and bladder spasms
airway secretions are decreased by
atropine
can cause acute angle-closure glaucoma in the elderly
atropine
can cause urinary retention in men with prostatic hypertrophy
atropine
can cause hyperthermia in infants
atropine
hexamtheonium is used in experimental models to
prevent vagal reflex responses to changes in blood pressure

(prevents reflex bradycardia caused by NE release)
epinephrine
α1
α2
β1
β2
low-dose Epi is selective for
β1
norepinephrine
α1
α2
β1 (minor)
isoproterenol
β1
β2
DA
D1
D2
DA is used to treat (2)
shock (increases renal perfusion)

heart failure
dobutamine
β1
β2 (minor)
ephedrine is used to treat (2)
nasal congestion

urinary incontinence
phenylephrine
α1
α2 (minor)
albuterol
β1 (minor)
β2
terbutaline
β1 (minor)
β2
α-methyldopa
α2
clonidine and α-methyldopa are used to treat
hypertension in pts. with renal disease (do not cause a decrease in renal blood flow)
change in PP with Epi
very wide PP

α1 causes SBP to increase
β2 causes DBP to decrease
isoproterenol:

change in BP
decreased DBP (β2)
phenoxybenzamine

reversible?
blocks α1 and α2

no
phenoxybenzamine is used to treat
pheochromocytoma
phentolamine

reversible?
blocks α1 and α2

yes
"-azosin" toxicity
1st-dose orthostatic hypotension
mirtazapine
blocks α2
mirtazapine is used to treat
depression
mirtazapine toxicities (2)
increased serum cholesterol

increased appetite
β-blockers vs. renin secretion
β-blockers cause a decrease in renin secretion by blocking β1
β-blockers decrease mortality assocaited with
MI's
β-blockers slow progression of
CHF
timolol is used to treat
glaucoma
selective, i.e., β1, β-blockers
A --> M
nonselective β-blockers
N --> Z
types of drugs used to treat glaucoma (5)
α-agonists
β-blockers
diuretics
cholinomimetics
prostaglandin analogs
α-agonists used to treat glaucoma (2)
epinephrine

brimonindine
MOA of epinephrine in treating glaucoma
increases outflow of aqueous humor
MOA of brimonidine in treating glaucoma
decreases production of aqueous humor
MOA of β-blockers in treating glaucoma
decrease production of aqueous humor
diuretic used to treat glaucoma
acetazolamide
MOA of acetazolamide in treating glaucoma
decrease production of aqueous humor due to a decrease in bicarbonate
MOA's of cholinomimetics in treating glaucoma (3)
increase outflow of aqueous humor

contract ciliary muscle --> open trabecular meshwork

open canal of Schlemm
cholinomimetic used in treating glaucoma emergencies
pilocarpine
prostaglandin analog used to treat glaucoma
latanoprost (PGF2α)
MOA of latanoprost
increase outflow of aqueous humor
latanoprost toxicity
darkens color of iris ("browning")