Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Echinacea
(Echinacea purpura, pallida,
angustifolia)• Uses:
Immunostimulant for
colds, flu, etc.
Echinacea
(Echinacea purpura, pallida,
angustifolia)• Mechanism:
Increased
WBC and spleen cells
Echinacea
(Echinacea purpura, pallida,
angustifolia)• Side effects:
nausea,
hypersensitivity, headache
Echinacea
(Echinacea purpura, pallida,
angustifolia)• Caution:
Autoimmune
states, progressive
systemic diseases;
immunosuppressant drug
use, pregnancy
Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
• Uses:
Increases
stamina, staying power,
virilence, memory,
Antiaging [caps, tea,
extract, root powder: < 2
g/day]
Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
• Side Effects:
elevated
BP, nervousness, insomnia
Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
• Caution:
Hypertension,
cardiovascular disease,
diabetes (hypoglycemia),
avoid in pregnancy or with
steroids; possible “ginseng
abuse syndrome”,
adulteration problems
Ginko Biloba• Uses:
Cognitive problems
in elderly; circulatory
problems (e.g. cerebral
vascular disease, claudication);
vertigo; tinnitus
Ginko Biloba
• Active ingredient:
flavone
and terpene lactones
Ginko Biloba• Mechanism:
Promotes vasodilation and inhibits
PAF (Plt aggr factor)
Ginko Biloba• Caution:
aspirin, avoid use
with anticoagulants
Garlic (Allium sativum)
• Uses:
Lipid reduction,
Blood pressure
control, Antibacterial,
Antifungal [600-900 mg
tabs/day fresh/dried cloves;
tabs, powder, oil]
Garlic (Allium sativum)
• Side effects:
odor,
dermatitis, nausea
Garlic (Allium sativum)
• Caution:
Anticoagulants,
ulcer/reflux, pregnancy
St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)• Uses:
Antianxiety,
antidepressant (Hypericin®)
St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)• Mechanism:
May inhibit
5-HT uptake. May be
antiinflammatory due to
flavinoid content (300-500
mg caps of standard = 0.3%
hypericin tid or 2-3 gm in tea)
St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)• Side effects:
photosensitivity, nausea,
dry mouth, restlessness
St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)• Caution:
SSRI, MAO
interactions, pregnancy,
alcohol CYP's dec oral contra's
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
• Uses:
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Antiemetic,
antispasmodic,
carminative [root,
extract, caps, tabs, tea
(1 g fresh root or powder
for nausea)]
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)• Side effects:
heartburn
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
• Caution:
Anticoagulants; use
during pregnancy
Controversial
Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)• Uses:
Phytoestrogen
for symptoms of
menopause (caps, root,
fluid and solid extracts
with doses of 40 mg/day
crude extract)
Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)• • Mechanism:
Suppresses
LH release
Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)• • Side effects:
nausea,
hypotension, abortion
Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)• • Caution:
contraindicated
in pregnancy, follow BP
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens)
• Uses:
Prostatic
Obstructive Symptoms
(Stage I and II)
[lipidosterolic extract 160 mg
bid or 1 g dried berries tid with
food]
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens)• Side effects:
nausea,
diarrhea, headache
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens)• Caution:
Take with
meals, avoid other
hormone therapy, rule
out prostatic CA!!!
(will shrink prost but may delay tx if CA)
• May be of some benefit
in BPH
Ephedra Ma Huang
(E. sinica, E. nevadensis)• Uses:
Asthma, hay fever,
bronchitis, edema, arthritis, fever,
hypotension, urticaria, weight loss
(Herbal Phen-Fen), kidney problems,
venereal disease, allergy relief,
narcolepsy, rheumatism
Amphetaminelike
Dependence
Ephedra Ma Huang
(E. sinica, E. nevadensis)•
• Active principle:
ephedrine,
pseudoephedrine (only of sufficient
quantities in Chinese species)
Ephedra Ma Huang
(E. sinica, E. nevadensis)• • Side Effects:
insomnia, irritability,
headaches, nausea, vomiting,
tachycardia, heart failure,
arrhythmias
Ephedra Ma Huang
(E. sinica, E. nevadensis)•
• ABUSE POTENTIAL
Used by
athletes as stimulant;
Aloe Vera
• Uses:
Treatment of
burns, superficial
wounds: antiinflammatory;
soothing; antipruritic;
antiseptic?
Aloe Vera• Side Effects:
rare
dermatitis; severe
diarrhea when used
internally
Aloe Vera• Caution:
Avoid
Injection will cause death
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)• Uses:
Urinary tract
antiseptic/mild diuretic [<
10g/day drops, tabs, tea]
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)• • Mechanism:
Arbutin
(5-15%) transformed to
hydroquinone, a urinary
antiseptic
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)•• Side effects:
greenish urine, nausea
Hawthorn (Crataegus douglas)• Uses:
Heart failure
(stage I & II), coronary
vasodilator [160-900 mg
extract p.o. in 2-3
doses/day]
Hawthorn (Crataegus douglas)• Side effects:
fatigue,
hypotension, nausea,
sweating, sedation
Hawthorn (Crataegus douglas)• Caution:
follow BP esp.
if on antihypertensives,
use with nitrates may
also increase digoxin
effect; avoid use with
sedatives
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)
• Uses:
Sedation, Anxiety
reduction, Improved sleep
patterns [tabs, caps, tinctures,
tea (400 mg extract before bed)]
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)• Side effects:
nausea (bad
taste), hypersensitivity,
rare paradoxical reaction
(excitability)
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)• Caution:
avoid with alcohol
and CNS depressants, avoid
in liver disease; unstudied in Pregnancy
Psychoactive Herbs
• Kava (Piper
methysticum)
• Marijuana
(Cannabis)
• Peyote
• Datura or Jimson
• Morning Glory
• Opium Poppy
Kava
Kava (Piper methysticum)
• Uses:
Anxiety; stress
reduction
Kava (Piper methysticum)
• Active principle:
kavapyrones in form of
extract, root, tabs or caps
[70 - 240 mg/day]
Kava (Piper methysticum)• Side Effects:
decreased reflexes and
judgement, kava dermatitis
Kava (Piper methysticum)
• Caution:
ABUSE
POTENTIAL Psychological
dependence – avoid use with
alcohol, benzodiazepines,
Levodopa
Herbal Antioxidants
• Green Tea (antiox prop)
• Grapeseed Extract (proanthocyanidins
= pacs)
• Pine Bark (pacs--pycnogenol)
• Turmeric (curcumin)
• Milk Thistle (silymarin)
• Cabbage Family
• Miscellaneous plant pigments:
carotenoids, flavenoids
Nutritional Supplements:
5-HTP (Griffonia Seeds)• Uses:
Weight loss;
depression; addiction; PMS;
insomnia; migraine;
Nutritional Supplements:
5-HTP (Griffonia Seeds)• Mechanism:
Precursor for
Serotonin (inc serotonin levels) a chemical
neurotransmitter that
modulates: mood; emotion;
sleep; appetite
Nutritional Supplements:
5-HTP (Griffonia Seeds)
• Side Effects: Parkinson’s
disease; nausea; vomiting; GI
cramping, diarrhea, variations in blood pressure
• Melatonin:
Hormone produced by pineal gland via
synthesis from serotonin. Involved in maintenance
of circadian rhythms
• Melatonin:• Uses:
Jet-lag and other sleep disturbances;
depression (especially Seasonal Affective
Disorder); potential adjuvant therapy with IL-2 in
advanced cancers; endocrine disorders (e.g.
menopause); antioxidant properties (anti-aging and
anticancer); increased sexual performance;
potential oral contraceptive.
• Melatonin:• Side Effects:
Relatively low with rare
development of arthralgias, myalgias and
leukopenia. Modest elevation in hepatic enzymes.
Phytoestrogens:
Plant-derived compounds that act like
estrogens. Most well studied are the isoflavones in soy or
red clover.
Phytoestrogens:• Mechanism:
Believed to act like endogenous estrogens to
significantly reduce menopausal symptoms (e.g. “hot
flashes”). Also reduces total cholesterol and LDL while
elevating HDL. The effect on lipids has not been observed
with isoflavones administered alone!! May increase bone
density and possess antioxidant properties that may provide
utility in treating breast and prostate cancer.
Phytoestrogens:• Uses:
Cancer treatment or prevention; cardiovascular
disease (esp. lipid involved); osteoporosis. Clear efficacy in
reducing menopausal symptoms.
• Concerns: May not be safe in women with ER+ breast
cancer or pregnant or nursing women.
DHEA
• Dehydroepiandrosterone
(DHEA): An adrenal
hormone produced in high quantities in youth that declines with age. Peak concentrations are produced around age 25.
• Concerns: May lead to suppression of natural production
of DHEA and could increase liver damage. Use
supplemental antioxidants to prevent oxidative damage to
liver.
DHEA
• Dehydroepiandrosterone
• Mechanism:
Generates sex hormones (i.e. estrogen and testosterone); increases percentage of muscle mass;
decreases percentage body fat; stimulates bone deposition
and possesses antioxidant properties.
DHEA
• Dehydroepiandrosterone
• Uses:
Reduce cardiovascular disease; improve mood;
increase lean body weight; treat lupus and osteoporosis;
enhance immune system, treat multiple sclerosis and
Alzheimer’s disease. Used by athlete’s to promote muscle
mass and strength.
Glucosamine/Chondroitin
• Glucosamine:
A natural amino sugar that
promotes formation and repair of cartilage by
stimulating cartilage-building proteins.
Glucosamine/Chondroitin
• Chondroitin Sulfate:
A carbohydrate
component of cartilage that promotes water
retention and elasticity, inhibits enzymes that
break cartilage down and may stimulate immune
system.
Glucosamine/Chondroitin
• Uses:
Osteoarthritis if used long enough.
Response can vary greatly among individuals.
Glucosamine/Chondroitin
• Concerns:
Generally well tolerated. Care
required in patients with bleeding disorders or
taking anticoagulants. Shell-fish allergies.
Fish Oil/Omega-3 Fatty Acids
• Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
Polyunsaturated fatty
acids found in high concentrations in fish oil.
Identified as “essential” fatty acids. Play an
important role in the production of arachidonic acid
products.
Fish Oil/Omega-3 Fatty Acids
• Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
• Uses:
FDA provided a qualified health statement
that supportive but not conclusive research shows
that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty
acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart
disease.
Fish Oil/Omega-3 Fatty Acids
• Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
• Concerns:
Increased bleeding and difficulty
regulating glycemic control in diabetics.
Herbal-Drug Interactions
Sedatives, sleeping pills,
antipsychotics, alcohol
Kava
Ginseng Warfarin
Caffeine, decongestants,
stimulants
Ephedra (Ma Huang)
Antidepressants, cardiac
glycosides
Herbal Product Drug Interaction
St. John’s wort
Aspirin, warfarin,
ticlopidine, clopidogrel,
dipyridamole
Ginkgo Biloba
Herbal Products Best Avoided
Yohimbe CNS stimulant
Ephedra (Ma Huang) Arrythmias, BP
Comfrey Liver toxicity
Chaparral Liver toxicity
Herbal Product Toxicity
The Dangers with Herbals
Natural is not always safe
Toxins in herbs contain other active agents
- specific indications
Proper dosing is essential
Delay in seeking care
Abuse potential
History of Medicine
2000 B.C. - “Here eat this root”
600 A.D. - Eat that Nigella
1000 A.D. - “That root is heathen.
Here, say this prayer.”
1850 A.D. - “That prayer is
superstition. Here drink this potion.”
1920 A.D. - “That potion is snake oil.
Here, swallow this pill.”
History of Medicine (2)
1945 A.D. - “That pill is ineffective.
Here, take this antiseptic penicillin.”
1955 A.D. - “Oops… germ mutated.
Here take this tetracycline.”
History of Medicine (3)
1960 - 2000 A.D. - “39 more ‘oops,
more germs mutated’….Here, take this
more powerful antibiotic, if you can
afford it. 20% of North Americans
cannot, 80% of the world cannot.”
2004 A.D. - “The bugs have won!
Cipro, Z-Pac and Vanco have failed and
besides we can’t afford it. Here eat this
garlic!!”