• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What do you use to monitor heparin? enoxaparin? warfarin?
Hep: PTT
enox: don't need to monitor
Warfarin: PT
Rapid reversal of heparin? warfarin?
hep: protamine sulfate
warf: IV vit K and fresh frozen plasma
How do you administer/where does it act for hep and warf?
Hep: IV acts in blood
Warf: oral acts in liver
Between hep and warf, which is teratogenic
warfarin (because it crosses the placenta)
Which is for acute decoag (DVT, PE, MI, stroke) and which is for chroinc anticoag (post STEMI)?
Hep for acute
Warf for chronic
(think about how each acts)
What do you use in Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia?
Lepirudin, Bivalirudin

how do they work?
directly inhibit thrombin
what drugs can be used in early MI or early ischemic stroke?
Thrombolytics: streptokinase, urokinase, tPA (alteplase)
In whom are thrombolytics contraindicated?
what do you treat toxicity with?
pts with a history of bleeds or pt with recent surgery

Aminocaproic acid
inhibit platelet aggregation by irreversibly blocking ADP receptors thus preventing GpIIb/IIIa expression?
clopidogrel and ticlopidine

used for?
Acute coronary syndrome, stenting
phosphodiesterase III inhibitor which increases cAMP in platelets thus inhibiting aggregation?
cilostazol, dipyridamole

used for?
intermittent claudication, coronary vasodilation, prevention of strokes, angina (since also a vasodilator)
GpIIb/IIIa direct inhibition?
Abciximab
what drug types block DNA synthesis?
Antimetabolites and Etoposide
What drug types block G2?
bleomycin and etoposide
What drugs block mitoses?
Vinca alkaloids and taxols
folic acid analog that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase?
Methotrexate

toxicities?
1) myelosuppression (rescued by leucovorin)
2) Macrovesicular fatty change in liver
3) Teratogen (neural tube defects)
pyrimidine analog which inhibits thymidylate synthase
5-fluoruracil

toxicities?
myelosuppression not rescued by leucovorin
photosensitivity
purine (thiol) analog that decrease de novo purine synthesis
6-mercaptopurine AND 6-thioguanine

what substance increases 6-MP toxicity?
allopurinol
pyrimidine analog that inhibits DNA polymerase
cytarabine (ara-C)
intercalates in DNA?
Actinomycin D

used for?
Childhood tumors: Wilm's, Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma
Generate free radicals and non-covalently intercalates in DNA
Doxorubicin and daunorubicin

toxicity?
Cardiotoxicity (dilated cardiomyopathy),
myelosuppression and alopecia
induces free radical formation
Bleomycin

toxicity?
pulmonary fibrosis, skin changs
inhibits topoisomerase II which increases DNA degradation
Etoposide
Drugs used for testicular cancer?
Etoposide, Bleomycin and cisplatin
(eradicate ball cancer)
What does cyclophosphamide need to be activated?
bioactivation by liver

toxicity of cyclo
hemorrhagic cystitis
used for brain tumors since they cross the bbb?
Nitrosoureas (carmustine, lomustine, streptozocin)
alkalates DNA?
Busulfan

toxicity?
pulmonary fibrosis and hyperpigmentation
alkaloids that bind to tubulin in M-phase and block polymerization of microtubules so that mitotic spindle cannot breakdown
Vincristine and Vinblastine

toxicity?
peripheral neuropathy (crist), bone marrow suppression (blast)
hyperstabilize polymerized microtubules in M-phase so spindle can't breakdown
paclitaxel/taxols

used for?
ovarian and breast cancers
cross link DNA
Cisplatin, carboplatin

toxicity?
nephrotoxic and acoustic nerve damage
inhibits ribonucleotide reductase thus decreasing dna synthesis
hydroxyurea

used in?
Sickle cell, melanoma, CML
triggers apoptosis
prednisone

used for?
cancers and immunosuppression
SERMs act how in breast/bone?
antagonist in breast (used in breast cancer)
agonist in bone (fights osteoporosis)
which of the SERMs is a partial agonist at the endometrium?
tamoxifen

therefore what happens?
increased risk of endometrial carcinoma and hot flashes

(raloxifene doesn't have these side effects)
monoclonal antibody against HER-2 (a tyrosine kinase) Used in metastatic breast cancer
trastuzumab

toxicity
cardio
monoclonal antibody against CD-20 (B-cell neoplasms)
rituximab
what is synergistic with methotrexate?
5-FU