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52 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of a seizure?
Involuntary, uncontrolled disturbance of the brain usually manifested by uncontrolled muscular activity. May be partial or general (the whole brain).
What are signs of seizures?
Loss or derangement of consciousness, loss of or excess muscle tome movement, alteration of sensation, changes in teh autonomic nervous system, behavioral changes.
What are three characteristics of seizures?
They are sterotypic (similar each time), unprecipitated (no obvious trigger) and cease spontaneously.
What is the definiton of epilepsy?
A general term meaning recurrent seizures, especially if underlying cause is not identified.
What needs to be ruled out before a seizure is diagnosed as epilepsy?
All other causes for a seizure.
What may be some other causes for a seizure besides epilepsy?
toxicity (strychnine, lead, antifreeze, organophosphate), acute encephalitis or meningitis (infections), hydrocephalus, brain tumor, hypogylcemia, hyperthermis, acute cranial trauma and other (rabies, hepatic encephalopathy)
What is primary epilepsy diagnosed on?
Normal history, PE, neuro exam, CBC, serum chemistry. Possible CSF tap, EEG, Catscan.
What are the four stages of an epileptic seizure?
Preictal (aura), Ictus, Post Ictal and Interictal period.
What is the Preictal (aura) stage?
Unusual behavior before the seizure. May include pacing, licking, salivating, barking. Can last minutes to hours.
What is the Ictus stage.
The actual seizure, lasts seconds to minutes.
What are the most common signs seen in dogs with epilepsy?
Loss of consciousness, collapse. Rigidity, paddling, jaw movement. viocalization, salivation, incontinence.
What is the Post ictal stage?
Disorientation and fatigue following seizure. Can include unusual behavior or neurological deficits, including temporary blindness.
What is the Interictal period stage?
Between seizures.
Which breed are more predisposed to seizures?
Dalmations, St. Bernards, Irish Setters, Poodles, Beagles, Cocker spaniels, Labs, Golden retrievers, Malamutes, Huskies
What is the definition of status epilepticus?
Multiple seizures with little or no rest between. One episode may last 15-30 minutes. It's a medical emergency!
What can occur because of status epilepticus?
Can be fatal due to Hypoxia and hyperthermia.
How do you treat status epilepticus?
IV diazepam first. Pentopbarbitol may be given if diazepam is unsuccessful. Control hyperthermia. Treat specific cause if known.
How do you control/treat epilepsy?
Control primary cause if known. Control seizures with anticonvulsants if seizures are long or frequent.
What's the recommended way of administering epileptic drugs?
Divide the daily dose into TID or QID - it gives optimum blood levels. You can give the higher amounts at night when most seizures occur.
What time of day do most seizures occur?
At night.
What drug therapies are used for dogs with seizures?
Phenobarbital, bromaide, primidone (Mylepsin -R), diazepam (Valium -R).
What's the drug of choice for seizures in dogs?
phenobarbital
What class of drug is phenobarbital?
Class IV
What needs to be monitored when using phenobarbital?
Liver values.
What drug drug is converted to phenobarbital in the body?
primidone (Mylepsin-R)
What drug is used for seizures in cats, but doesn't have the same effect in dogs?
diazepam (Valium-R). Little ability to prevent seizures in dogs, but is used as a treatment.
What drugs are used to treat seizures in cats?
phenobarbital (Luminal-R, solfoton-R) and diazepam (Valium-R).
What's the drug of choice for treating cats with seizurs?
phenobarbital (Luminal-R, Solfoton-R).
Trade name for primidone?
Mylepsin-R
Generic name for Mylesin-R?
primidone
Trade name for diazepam?
Valium-R
Generic name for Valium-R.
diazepam
Trade name for phenobarbital.
Luminal-R, Solfoton-R
Generic name for Luminal-R.
phenobarbital
Generic name for Solfoton-R.
phenobarbital
Drug contraindications to seizure drugs.
Antihistamines, phenothiazine tranquilizers and antiemetics (they all depress the CNS).
Trade name for diazepam?
Valium-R
What are two drugs that are used for behavior therapy?
clomipramine (Clomicalm-R), selegiline (Anipryl-R)
What is clomipramine (Clomicalm-R)?
A tricyclic antidepressnat- increases serotonin and norepinephrin (neurotransmitters) levels in the brain.
What does clomipramine (Clomicalm-R) do?
Releives anxiety and enhances learning efficiency. Also used for obsessive behaviors, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization and urine marking.
Trade name for clomipramine.
Clomicalm-R
Generic name for Clomicalm-R.
Clomipramine.
What is selegiline (Anipryl-R)?
A MOA-B inhibitor - increases dopamine (neurotransmitter) levels to the brain.
What is selegiline (Anipryl-R) used for?
The treat canine cognitive dysfunction (senility) and clinical signs of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
Trade name for selegiline.
Anipryl-R
Generic name for Anipryl-R.
selegiline
What is oxyglobin used for?
A dark purple oxygen-carrying fliud given IV for anemia. A substitute for blood transfusion.
How often can you give oxyglobin?
Once.
How long does it take oxyglobin to clear the body?
4-9 days.
What are some adverse side effects to oxyglobin?
Cardiac, respiratory and gastrointestinal effects, anaphylactic shock and death.
What is oxyglobin (made up of)?
It's a Modified Lactated Ringer's solution containing polymerized bovine hemoglobin.
What is oxyglobin labeled for use in?
Dogs.