• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/137

Click to flip

137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Infectious agents are still a leading cause of death worldwide T/F?
True
In high income countries, the majority of people die from infectious disease T/F?
False - from chronic disease
In low income countries, the majority of people die from infectious disease, T/F?
True
What demographic group is particularly susceptible to infectious disease?
Children
Therapeutic stratgey that maximizes death of invading microbes but minimizes adverse effects in the host is a concept known as:
Selective toxicity
Microbes have features not present in human host: good or bad?
Good - we can target these with Abx
Resistance to drugs develop quickly and spreads quickly due to short generation time of bacteria - good or bad?
Bad
What organisms are obligate intracellular parasites?
Viruses
Viruses are bigger or smaller than a ribosome?
Smaller (<10 nM)
Name four components of virus:
1. Nucleic acid
2. Lipid bilayer
3. Glycoproteins
4. Capsid proteins
What are the two main classes of viruses?
DNA and RNA viruses (can be ds or ss)
Herpesvirus is a DNA/RNA virus?
DNA virus
What drugs (2) blocks DNA replication and is used to treat herpes?
Acyclovir
Gancyclovir
What drugs are DNA nucleoside analogues? (2)
Acyclovir
Gancyclovir
What drug looks like guanine?
Acyclovir
Name two guanine nucleoside analogues:
Acyclovir
Gancyclovir
Acyclovir activated (phosphorylated) by a viral protein called what?
Thymidine kinase
Phosphorylated or unphosphorylated form of acyclovir/ganciclovir inhibits viral DNA pol?
Phosphorylated form
Acyclovir and ganciclovir get incorporated into what part of the virus?
DNA pol
What drug is used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV)?
Acyclovir
What important drug interaction occurs with acyclovir?
Nephrotoxic drugs
Acyclovir and nephrotoxic drugs can cause increased risk of renal damage T/F?
True
Acyclovir and Zidovudine (AZT) can cause what?
Severe lethargy
Acyclovir and what drug can cause severe lethargy?
Zidovudine (AZT)
What drug is used to treat CMV (usually retinitis)?
Gancyclovir
What is the main side effect of acyclovir and ganciclovir?
Nephrotoxicity
What is an important drug interaction with ganciclovir?
Nephrotoxic drugs
Phosphorylated or unphosphorylated form of acyclovir/ganciclovir inhibits viral DNA pol?
Phosphorylated form
Acyclovir and ganciclovir get incorporated into what part of the virus?
DNA pol
What drug is used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV)?
Acyclovir
What important drug interaction occurs with acyclovir?
Nephrotoxic drugs
Acyclovir and nephrotoxic drugs can cause increased risk of renal damage T/F?
True
Acyclovir and Zidovudine (AZT) can cause what?
Severe lethargy
Acyclovir and what drug can cause severe lethargy?
Zidovudine (AZT)
What drug is used to treat CMV (usually retinitis)?
Ganciclovir
What is the main side effect of acyclovir and ganciclovir?
Nephrotoxicity
What is an important drug interaction with ganciclovir?
Nephrotoxic drugs
What drug blocks protein translation?
Fomivirsen
What drug is the first antisense RNA therapy?
Fomivirsen
Fomivirsen is used to treat what condition?
CMV retinitis (Can also use gancyclovir)
What anti-influenza agent blocks the uncoating process?
Amantadine
What drug can cause livedo reticularis?
Amantadine
What drug is used for Influenza A prophylaxis and treatment?
Amantadine
What drug inhibits viral uncoating?
Amantadine
What is the major side effect of amantadine?
CNS effects
Can also cause livedo reticularis (severe life threatening rash)
Mutation in M2 channel (proton channel) causes resistance to what antiviral?
Amantadine
What antiviral is also found to decrease tremors in Parkinsons' Disease?
Amantadine
What antiviral was shown to also induce release of dopamine from nerve endings?
Amantadine
What anti-influenza agent blocks viral release?
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
What anti-influenza is good for both Influenza A and B?
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
What is the time frame for treatment of influenze A/B with oseltamivir?
Within 48 hours onset
What anti-influenza is a sialic acid analogue?
Oseltamivir
Sialic acid analogues (Oseltamivir) inhibits what viral enzyme?
Viral neuraminidase
What enzyme cleaves sialic acid residues to facilitate release from the host cell?
Viral neuraminidase
What anti-influenza drug can cause bronchospasm and is CI in patients with asthma?
Zanamivir (Relenza) given by inhalation
Can cause allergic reactions
What drug is used by inhalation and is contraindicated in patients with asthma?
Zanamivir (Relenza)
What is the route of administration of oseltamivir?
Oral
What is the route of elimination of Oseltamivir?
Unchanged via kidney
Why must dose of oseltamivir be decreased in childen and patients with renal impairment?
Oseltamivir is eliminated unchanged via the kidneys
What antiviral blocks mRNA metabolism?
Ribavirin
What antiviral is used to treat chronic hepatitis C?
Ribavirin
What antiviral is commonly used with interferon to treat hepatitis C?
Ribavirin
What drug is a guanosine analogue and inhibits IMPDH?
Ribavirin
What drug is a guanosine analogue and inhibits IMPDH?
Ribavirin
What antiviral is linked to behavior problems (Suicide)
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
What antiviral is linked to behavior problems (Suicide)
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
What drug has ADR of hemolytic anemia?
Ribavirin
What drug has ADR of hemolytic anemia?
Ribavirin
What drug prevents activation/phosphorylation of Zidovudine?
Ribavirin
What drug prevents activation/phosphorylation of Zidovudine?
Ribavirin
What is the pregnancy category of Ribavirin?
Pregnancy category X (Teratogen)
What is the pregnancy category of Ribavirin?
Pregnancy category X (Teratogen)
How long is required for "washout" after long-term treatment of ribavirin?
6 months
How long is required for "washout" after long-term treatment of ribavirin?
6 months
What is a potentially safer derivative that may replace ribavirin?
Viramidine
What is a potentially safer derivative that may replace ribavirin?
Viramidine
What drug is a guanosine analogue and inhibits IMPDH?
Ribavirin
What are endogenous cytokines that cause immunomodulation?
Interferons
What are endogenous cytokines that cause immunomodulation?
Interferons
What antiviral is linked to behavior problems (Suicide)
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
What antiviral agent is used to treat chronic hepatitis B/C, Kaposi's sarcoma?
Interferon alpha
What antiviral agent is used to treat chronic hepatitis B/C, Kaposi's sarcoma?
Interferon alpha
What drug has ADR of hemolytic anemia?
Ribavirin
What drug given with interferon improves efficacy?
Ribavirin
What drug given with interferon improves efficacy?
Ribavirin
What drug prevents activation/phosphorylation of Zidovudine?
Ribavirin
What is the pregnancy category of Ribavirin?
Pregnancy category X (Teratogen)
How long is required for "washout" after long-term treatment of ribavirin?
6 months
What is a potentially safer derivative that may replace ribavirin?
Viramidine
What are endogenous cytokines that cause immunomodulation?
Interferons
What antiviral agent is used to treat chronic hepatitis B/C, Kaposi's sarcoma?
Interferon alpha
What drug given with interferon improves efficacy?
Ribavirin
What is the dose-limiting toxicity of interferon?
Myelosuppression, neutropenia
What form of interferon is administered subcutaneously?
Pegylated interferon
Name a nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)
Zidovudine (AZT)
What drug is used for suppression of HIV infection and elevation of CD4 counts?
Zidovudine (AZT)
What drug given during pregnancy reduces the HIV transmission to fetus?
Zidovudine (AZT)
Does Zidovudine have to be phosphorylated?
Yes it does
What drug competes for reverse transcriptase and functions as chain terminators?
Zidovudine (AZT) - NRTI
NRTI's are/are not used in combination therapies?
Are used in combination therapies
What slows the selection of resistant organisms to drugs?
Use of combination therapy
HIV reverse transcriptase is/is not an error prone enzyme?
Error prone enzyme
Are there lots of drug interactions with Zidovudine?
Yes, must be aware!
What antiretroviral can cause granulocytopenia and anemia? Name 2
Zidovudine (AZT) NRTI
Nevirapine (NVP) NNRTI
What anti-retroviral can cause CNS effects (headache, seizure, encephalopathy)?
Zidovudine (AZT)
What effect can zidovudine have on muscles?
Muscle pain and weakness
What acid-base disturbance can occur with all NRTIs?
Metabolic acidosis from mitochondrial damage
Hepatotoxicity can occur with Zidovudine T/F?
True
The azido group makes AZT more/less lipophilic?
More lipophilic
Name a Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)
Nevirapine (NVP)
What virus is nevirapine used to treat?
HIV
What drug is a non-competitive inhibitor of HIV RT?
Nevirapine (NVP)
NNRTIs increases metabolism of protease inhibitors (T/F)?
True
Why must you monitor or adjust the dose of protease inhibitors when giving Nevirapine (NVP)?
Increased metabolism of protease inhibitors with NVP
Allergic reaction to nevirapine can cause what?
Rash
What blood dyscrasia can be caused by nevirapine?
Granulocytopenia
What GI effects can be caused by nevirapine?
Diarrhea, nausea, pain
What is the oral bioavailability of nevirapine?
>90%
Is nevirapine highly lipophilic and distributed to tissues?
Yes, widely distributed
How is nevirapine metabolized?
Hepatic
Name a protease inhibitor:
Indinavir (IDV)
What protease inhibitor is used in combination treatments for HIV and lowers the viral load, raises CD4?
Indinavir (IDV)
What enzyme does Indinavir inhibit?
HIV protease
What sequence of genes is cleaved by HIV protease?
gag-pol-env
Protease inhibitors are metabolized by what?
CYP3A4
What are GI effects of indinavir?
Diarrhea, nausea, pain, vomiting
Less with IDV than other Protease Inhibitors
Are GI effects more or less common with indinavir?
Less common
Protease inhibitor effect on lipid metabolism causes what?
"Buffalo hump" fat redistribution
Peripheral wasting, truncal obesity
What effect does indinavir have on glucose levels?
Hyperglycemia
What are the renal effects of indinavir?
Nephrolithiasis
What is HAART?
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy
What are the three classes of drugs at least required for HAART?
1. Zidovudine (RT inhibitor)
2. Indinavir (Protease inhibitor)
3. Nevirapine (NNRTI)
Name an integrase inhibitor
Raltegravir
What enzyme phosporylates and activates ganciclovir?
GMP kinase
Acyclovir or ganciclovir inhibits DNA polymerization?
Ganciclovir
What enzyme phophorylates and activates acyclovir?
Thymidine kinase
Acyclovir or ganciclovir inhibits viral DNA pol and is a chain terminator?
Acyclovir