• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alpha cells in the pancreas
produce glucagon
Beta cells in the pancreas
produce insulin
Beta cells are found
Islets of Langerhans
Delta cells in the pancreas
produce somatostatin
product of proinsulin cleavage used to assess insulin abuse
C-peptide
Exogenous insulin
Little C-peptide
Endogenous insulin
Normal C-peptide
very rapid acting insulin, having fastest onset and shortest duration of action
Lispro (humalog)
rapid acting, crystalline zinc insulin used to reverse hyperglycemia
Regular (Humulin R)
Long acting insulin
Ultralente (humulin U)
Ultra long acting insulin, has over a day duration of action
glargine (Lantus)
Major SE of insulin
hypoglycemia
Important in synthesis of glucose to glycogen in the liver
GLUT 2
Important in muscle and adipose tissue for glucose transport across muscles and TG storage by lipoprotein lipase activation
GLUT 4
Examples of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGI)
Acarbose, miglitol
MOA of AGIs
Act on intestine, delay absorption of glucose
SE of AGIs
flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal cramps (do not use beano to tx)
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor associated with elevation of LFTs
Acarbose
Amino acid derivative
nateglinide (D-phenylalanine)
MOA of nateglinide
insulin secreatagogue
Biguanide
Metformin
Drugs available in combination with metformin
Glyburide, glipizide, and rosiglitazone
MOA of metformin
decreases hepatic glucose production and intestinal glucose absorption; increase insulin sensitivity
Most important potential SE for metformin
lactic acidosis
Meglitinide
repaglinide
MOA of repaglinide
insulin release from pancrease; faster and shorter acting that sulfonylurea
First generation sulfonylurea
Chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, tolazamide
Second generation sulfonylurea
glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, etc
MOA of both generations
insulin release from pancreas by modifying (closing) K channels
Common SE of sulfonylureas, repaglinide, and nateglinide
hypoglycemia
Sulfonylurea NOT recommended for elderly because very long half life
Chlorpropamide
Thiazolidinediones
Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone, Troglitazone(withdrawn from market)
Reason troglitazone was withdrawn from market
hepatic toxicity
MOA of thiazolindinediones
stimulate PPAR-gamma receptor to regulate CHO and lipid metabolism
SE of thiazolindinediones
Edema, mild anemia; interaction with drugs that undergo CYP4503A4 metabolism
Hyperglycemic agent that increases cAMP and results in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, reverses hypoglycemia, also used to reverse severe beta-blocker OD and smooth muscle relaxation
Glucagon
Pramlintine
Type 1 and 2- analog of amylin activates amylin receptors- RANK- suppresses glucagon release, slows gastric emptying, works in CNS to reduce appetite
Exenatide
long-acting injectable peptide analog of GLP-1; used in combo with metformin or sulfonylurea for Type 2