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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the "normal" range
where 95% of people w/o illnees in question fall
normal range determined by:
applying statistical methods to results from a representative sample of the population
normal range as it relates to drug concentration
therapeutic range
normal range AKA
reference range
reference interval
critical value
lab result that is far outside the normal range, implying morbidity
factors that affect the normal range (5)
specimin analyzed
population studied
assay used and form of analyte
nutritional status
examination and determination as to characteristics; analysis to determine presence or quality of a drug
a substance that is undergoing examination
results where normal values are reported in ranges
results reported with varying degrees of positivism
results with a positive or negative outcome
what are the 5 rationale for ordering a lab test?
discover occult disease
confirm suspected diagnosis after signs/symptoms appear
determine the stage or activity level of a disease
detect recurrence of disease
measure the effectiveness of therapy & guide its course
discretionary test
have some reason to do further testing
screening test
screen because of a certain age or risk factor (everyone in that category gets the test)
5 questions to ask yourself when interpreting test results
does the measured entity exist naturally in the body?
how might the entity get into the tissue or fluid tested?
is the entity preferentially stored in any body compartment?
does the entity have a normal function in the body?
does the entity reflect pathophys in question directly or indirectly?
lab errors may be a result of (5)
improper handling or timing of specimen collection
faulty reagents
inaccurate transcription
technical performance probs
interfering substances
lab errors should be suspected when: (4)
unusual intrapatient trend develops
error's magnitude is great
result is not in agreement with a confirmatory test result
result is inconsistent with clinical info
deals with the chances that an individual with a particular disease state will have a positive result for the test being measured
deals with the chance that an individual without a particular disease state will have a negative test result from the test being measured
when to suspect drug-lab test interference (5)
test results do not correlate with patients s/s
results of diff tests conflict
results from same test vary greatly over a short time
results from same test change in wrong direction
single result is extremely high
invasive procedure
more expensive
more recovery time
more difinitive
non-invasive procedure
less expensive
less accurate
electromag radiation of extremely short wavelengths that is absorbed by denser body parts
x-ray of the chest
most common non-invasive test
gastrointestinal study
uses radiographic contrast media to visualize the GI
intravenous pyelogram
kidneys, ureters, bladder
radiopaque dye
non invasive
x-ray of breast
used for early detection of breast cancer
magnetic resonance imaging
based on absorption & transmission of high-frequency ratio waves by water in tissued placed in a strong magnetic field
computerized tomography
non invasive
x-ray scans at diff angles
provide 3D pic
non invasive
high freq sound waves to determine position or size of soft tissue
nuclear medicine studies
the use of radioactive materials to help diagnose & treat certain diseases
examples of nuclear medicine studies
brain scans
bone scans
thyroid uptake scan
lung & cardiac imaging
measurment of the electrical activity in the heart as it pumps blood
electical activity of the brain
assessment of seizure disorders or states of impared consciousness
cardiac catheterization & angiography
tube inserted into blood vessel and passed into heart where constrast medium is released
exercise stress test
non invasive
evaluate clinical & cardiovascular responses to exercise
pharmacologic stress test
pharmacologic agents produce stress by causing vasodilative response or incr myocardial O2 demand