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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are antihistamines
a group of drugs that inhibit the actions of histamine
what cells release histamine
mast cell
what is the major use of antihistamines
dermatology and allergies
what are some examples of histamine liberators
morphine and xray contrast
what are some of the reactions to the release of histamine
pruritius, hypotension, constriction of bronchioles
what is hypotension
low blood pressure
what is the major use for antihistamines in dogs
what percentage of allergies respond to antimistamines
why should antihistamines be the first drug to use
they are proven safer than glucocorticoids
what are some of the clinical uses of antihistamines
pruritis, urticaria (hives), laminitis (p3 rotation), motion sickness, anaphylactis shock, reverse sneeze syndrome, heaves in horses, and urti
name the 5 side effects associated with antihistamines
sedation, cns excitation, birth defects, decrease in secretions, agranulocytosis
what other group of drugs should not be given to an animal that is on antihistamines
anticonvulsant drugs
what is the trade name of diphenhydramine
what forms is Diphenhydramine (Benadryl R) available in
cap, elixir, and injectable
what drug is not as effective on skin problems, but is reported to have an effect on heaves
chlorpheniramine (Chlor-trimetron R)
what AH has some pain relief effects, causes relaxation of the skeletal muscles, and has less side effects that classical AHs?
hydroxyzine HCL (Atarax R)
what is the generic name of Seldane
what is a popular motion sickness drug for humans that is also used in animals
dimenhydrinate (Dramamine R)
what is the trade name of pyrilamine maleate
Histavet R
What are corticosteroids used for in vet med
inflammation, pruritis, shock, and immune mediated dz
what does the adrenal cortex produce
natural corticosteroids
what does the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control
the release of corticosteroids
how are the corticosteroids produced that are used clinically
what are the two groups of corticosteroids
Mineralocorticoids and Glucocorticoids
what do mineralocorticoids regulate
electrolyte and water balance
what mineralocorticoid is produced naturally in the body
what does the mineralocorticoid Aldosterone cause
release in the body causes retention of sodium in the tubles of the kidney.
what is a synthetic mineralocorticoid used in replacement therapy
Fludrocortisone acetate (Florinef R)
What is the dz associated with the lack of Aldosterone
Addisons DZ
what are the actions of glucocorticoids
anti inflammatory, immunosuppressant
what do glucocordicoids influence
carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism
what is phagocyte chemotaxis
a chemical call for phagocytes to reduce the bad cells
what are the two natural glucocorticoids
Cortisol and corticosterone
What are prednisone, Prednisolone, Betamethasone, Dexamethasone, methylprednisone and prednisolone sodium succinate
Synthetic glucocorticoids
What does the Depo stand for in the drug name Depo-medrol R (methylpredinsolone)
long acting
what forms are glucocorticoids availible in
oral, topical,injectable
what is Addisons dz
what are clinical uses for Glucocorticoids
allergic reaction, inflam, shock, toxemia, lameness, Addisons, AIHA, inflam ocular dz, lymphocytic neoplasias
Is pu/pd/pp a long or short term use side effect of corticoids
what does pp stand for (ie pu/pd/pp)
polyphagea (over eating)
What can result iatrogenically from corticoid steroid use
Cushings dz and Addisons dz (after long term treatment with an abrupt stop)
why would an animal gain weight from steroid use
polyphagea and water retention
what are some cases where you would not give an animal steroids unless absolutely needed?
if animal is pregnant, it has diabetes, it is immature, its dehydrated, has a healing wound, has a sever infection, or it has corneal ulcers
what does NSAIDS stand for
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory DrugS
why are NSAIDS perferred over steroids
because of analgesic and anti pyretic components.
what age group should NSAIDS be used with caution
what is the "triple A" effect
anti-inflammitory, anti-pyretic, analgesic
are NSAIDS or steroids more effective as an anti inflammitory?
what are some advantages of NSAIDs
no steroidal effects (ie pu/pd/pp) no cns suppression, fewer serious side effects
what is the aim for NSAIDs
Aim is to use lowest effective dose for as short of a time as possible
what is the most common problem associated with NSAIDs
GI bleeding and ulceration
what are some disadvantages of NSAIDs
blood abnorm, clotting, decreased renal blood perfusion
When should you not use a NSAID
Kidney or liver dz, hypotenion or dehydration, thrombocytopenia, clotting dz, GI ulcerative dz, using corticoids
what drug is recommended at a one time dose? Why?
Flunixin Meglumine (Banamine) It has a potental for gastric ulcers and nephrotoxicity
What is the nick name for Phenulbutazone (Butasolidin)
What is BUTE used for in LAM
Anti inflammatory
what are the generic and trade names of asprin
Ecotrin R, acetylsalicylin acid
What is special about Ecotrin R
It has a enteric coating and may prevent or reduce GI irritation
Why should asprin be given with a RX only.
Cats are very sensitive. Can cause GI upset in dogs
What form of Asprin, Ecotrin R, acetylsalicylic acid should be used when needed in vet med
What is DMSO (name) and what is it used for
Dimethyl Sulfaxide. It is primarily a carrier for other drugs, but has a triple a effect
Why should you wear gloves when handling DMSO
It has a garlic taste when it comes into contact with skin.
How should DMSO be stored
in an airtight container
What is the generic name for Rimadayl
What is carprofen, Rimadyl R used for
joint pain, bone pain
Is Rimadyl R approved for use in cats in the US
No, but is in Europe
What is naproxen Naprosyn R or Equiproxen labeled for use in
human and horse
What is naproxin NaprosynR, EquiproxenR used for
pain relief, inflammation, lameness
what is myositis
inflammation of the muscle
What are etodolac, EtoGesicR, and Deramaxx used for
K9 arthritis
what drug used for osteoarthritis contians glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate and magneses sulfate
Cosequin R, PetFlex R
what drug is labeled for horses and dogs is used IM or intraarticularly
Adequan R
Arquel R is a oral drug used in what animal
what way is Hyalovet uses
intra artiular injection
what 2 things is Seletoc R made of
Selenium and Vit e
What is Methocarbamol, Robaxin V
muscle relaxor
what are the 2 NSAIDs not used in vet med
Ibuprofen, Advil R and Acetaminphen, Tylenol R
what are the symptoms you would see in a cat that has had Tylenol
Facial Edema, cyanosis, depression, anorexia
what is Tylenol associated with in dogs
liver dz
what is fever
change in temp set point of CNS
What are chemical agents that rise the CNS set point resulting in fevers called
What are some pyrogens
Bacteria, virus, drugs, fungi
what can be damaged if a fever of over 107 occurs
liver, kidneys, and CNS
What are the 3 anti pyretic drugs
Buffered asprin, Bute, Banamine
What are supplemental treatments for fever
Fluids and steroids