Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic nervous system

acetylcholinesterase
a neurotransmitter that inactivates acetylcholine

adrenergic drugs
drugs with effects similar to those that that occur in the body when the adrenergic nerves are stimulated

adrenergic blocking drugs
drugs that impede certain sympathetic nervous system functions

autonomic nervous system
the branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls functions essential for survival

cardiac arrhythmia
irregular heartbeat

central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord

cholinergic blocking drugs
drugs that impede certain parasympathetic nervous system functions

cholinergic drugs
drugs that mimic the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system

cholinergic crisis
cholinergic drug toxicity

first dose effect
an unusually strong therapeutic effect experienced by some patients with the first dose of medication

glaucoma
an eye condition in which a blockage of drainage channels within the eye results in increased intraocular pressure that may lead to blindness

myasthenia gravis
a disease that causes fatigue of skeletal muscles because of the lack of acetylcholine released at the nerve endings of parasympathetic nerve fibers

neurotransmitter
a chemical substance
also called neurohormone
orthostatic hypertension
a feeling of light–headedness and dizziness after suddenly changing position
caused by a decrease in blood pressure when a person sits or stands
parasympathetic nervous system
a branch of the autonomic nervous system partly responsible for activities such as slowing the heart rate
digesting food
peripheral nervous system
all nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord
connecting all parts of the body with the central nervous system
postural hypotension
a feeling of lightheadedness and dizziness after suddenly changing from a lying to sitting or standing position
or from a sitting to a standing position
shock
a life threatening condition occuring when the supply of arterial blood flow and oxygen to the tissues and cells is inadequate

somatic nervous system
branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls sensation and voluntary movement

sympathetic nervous system
branch of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the expendature of energy and has key effects in stressful situations

vasopressor
a drug that raises the blood pressure because it constricts blood vessels

adrenergic drugs
synthetic neurohormones Epinephrine and norepinephrine––mimic activity of sympathetic nervous system. Effects similar to those that occur when the adrenergic nerves are stimulated.-metaraminol (Aramine)
isoproterenol (Isuprel)
ephedrine
synthetic adrenergics
primary effects occur in the heart
the blood vessels
adrenergic blocking drugs
impede sympathetic nervous system functions.-four classes of adrenergic blocking drugs block four different sets of nerves
have four related but different actions
cholinergic drugs––mimic activity of parasympathetic nervous system.-limited usefulness due to adverse reactions
cholinergic blocking drugs–– block action of neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system-anticholinergics have numerous effects because parasympathetic nerves control many areas of the body
somatic nervous system––sensory part sends messages to brain about internal and external environment––heat
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic

What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
regulates the expenditure of energy and has key effects when one is confronted with stressful situations––danger
intense emotion or severe illness
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do?
helps conserve body energy and is partly responsible for activities such as slowing the heart rate
digesting food and eliminating body wastes
What are the neurotransmitters of the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system?
Epinephrine
secreted by the adrenal medulla
Norepinephrine
secreted mainly at nerve endings of sympathetic (adrenergic) nerves.

What are the neurotransmitters of the parasympathetic (cholinergic) nervous system.- acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)


Where are three places parasympathetic neurotransmitters ACh and AChE are released?-1)nerve endings of parasympathethic nerve fibers
some nerve endings of sympathetic nerves 3) nerve endings of skeletal muscles

How do parasympathetic nerves transmit impulses?
a stimulated nerve fiber releases ACh
the impulse travels to the effector organ or structure. After crossing
What are the effects of the ANS on the heart?
Sympathetic (andrinergic)– Increased heart rate
muscle contractility
Parasympathetic (cholinergic)
decreased heart rate and muscle contractility

What are the actions of the ANS?
on blood vessels in the skin
mucous membranes and skeletal muscle?-S (A) Constriction skeletal muscle–usually dilation
What are the actions of ANS on bronchial muscles?
S (A) relaxation P (C) Contraction

What are the actions of ANS on GI structures?
S (A) sphincters usually contract
gallbladder relaxes
P (C) muscle motility
tone decrease––increased; sphincters relax
gallbladder contracts
What are the actions of ANS on the urinary bladder?-S (A) detrusor muscle relaxes
P (C) opposite
What are the actions of ANS on the eye?
S (A) radial muscle of iris contracts
pupil dilates
P (C) sphincter muscle of iris contracts
pupil constricts. ciliary muscle contracts
What are the actions of ANS on the skin?-S (A) sweating in localized areas and goosebumps (pilomotor muscles)
P (C)
What are the actions of ANS on the salivary glands
liver