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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of drug is bethanecol
Direct muscarinic agonist
What direct muscarinic agonists are used to treat glaucoma
Carbachol and pilocarpine
What does bethanecol mainly do
activates bowel and bladder smooth muscle
Are bethanecol, carbachol, and pilocarpine resistant or sensitive to AChE
resistant
How do anticholinesterases work
carbamylation of aceytylcholinesterase
Which anti-AChE work to treat myastenia gravis
Neostigmine and Pyridostigmine
Which anti-AChE is used to diagnose myastenia gravis and why
Edrophonium, b/c it is extremely short acting
Which anti-achE are used to treat glaucoma
physostigmine and echothiophate
What else is physostigmine used for
atropine overdose
What are symptoms of Anti-ACh overdose
Diarrha, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradycardia, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, sweating, salivation
What is the antidote to Anti-ACh overdose
Atropine (muscarinic antagonist) + pralidxime (chemical antagonist used to regenerate active cholinesterase)
Regarding the following cholinorecptor blockers, when are they used
Benstropine
Parkinson's disease
Ipratropium
Ashma, COPD
Scoplamine
Motion sickness
Methscopolamine
Reduce urgency in cystitis adn reduce bladder spasms
Atropine
Produce mydriasis (pupil dilation) and cycloplegia (paralysis of ciliary muscle)
What does atropine do to the following systems
Eye
Inc pupil dilation, cycloplegia
Airway
dec secretions
stomach
dec acid secretion
gut
dec motility
bladder
dec urgency in cystitis
what are inc temp, rapid pulse, dry mouth, dry skin, constipation and disorientation symptoms of
Atropine toxicity
What other drugs have anticholinergic effects
TCAs
What kind of drugs are phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
alpha blockers
what is the differece b/w them
phenozybenzamine is irreversibe whaile phentolamine is reversible
what condition are they used for
pheochromocytoma
What are 3 alpha 1 selective blockers
prazosin, tarazosin, doxazosin
what are they used for
hypertension adn urinary retention in BPH
What are the toxicity (especially with first dose)
orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache
What is mirtazapine
alpha 2 selective blocker
what is it used for
depression
What do the Beta blockers do for the following conditions
Hypertension
dec CO, dec renin
Angina pectoralis
dec HR adn contractility, leading to dec O2 consumption
MI
Beta blockers decrease mortality
Glaucoma
dec secretion of aqueous humor
What are the Beta 1 selective blockers
Acebutolol, betaxolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprolol
(A BEAM of B1 blockers)
In terms of glaucoma drugs, how do the following drugs work
epinephrine (alpha agonist)
inc outflow of aqeuous humor
Brimonidine (alpha agonist)
dec aqueous humor synthesis
Beta blockers
dec aqueous humor secretion
acetazolamide (diuretic)
dec aqueous humor secretion due to dec HCO3 (cargonic anhydrase inhibitor)
cholinomimetics
pilocarpine, carbachol, physostigmine, echothiophate
inc outflow of aqueous humor; contract ciliary muscle and open trabecular meshwork
prostaglandin
Latanoprost
inc outflow of aqeuous humor
Which glaucoma drugs have the following side effect
miosis, cyclospasm
cholinomimetics
mydriasis
epinephrine, stinging, do not use in closed angle glaucoma
darkens color of iris
Latanoprost