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91 Cards in this Set

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Disintegration
Breakdown of drug into smaller particles (Pharmaceutic Phase)
Dissolution
Dissolving of smaller particles into the GI Tract before absorption (Pharmaceutic Phase)
Pharmaceutic Phase
First phase of Pharmaceutic, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics. Disintergration and Dissolution of Oral Meds occurs during this phase.
Pharmacokinetic Phase
Defn: The study of how the Body effects a drug

4 Phases: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
Absorption Phase
Movement of drug particles from the GI Tract to body fluids by Passive Abs, Active Abs, or Pinocytosis
First Pass Effect (Hepatic First Pass)
Process which the drug passes through the Liver
Bioavailability
Percentage of administered drug dose that reaches systemic circulation
Distribution Phase
Drug becomes available to body fluids and tissues
Influences of Distribution Phase
Blood Flow, Tissue Affinity, Protein Binding Affect
Metabolism Phase
Occurs primarily in Liver; can occur in GI tract

Most oral drugs are inactivated by the liver and excreted
Half Life (t1/2)
Time it takes one-half of drug concentration to be eliminated

90% of drug must be eliminated to be considered gone from body
Elimination/Excretion Phase
Occurs in the Kidneys be way of the bladder

Protein Bound drugs cannot be filtered
Creatine Clearance (CLcr)
Most accurated test used to determine Kidney function

Normal: 85-135mL/min
Note: Lower values found in the Elderly & Females
Pharmacodynamics
Study of a Drug's effect upon the body.
Prime Drug Effect
Desired
Disintegration
Breakdown of drug into smaller particles (Pharmaceutic Phase)
Dissolution
Dissolving of smaller particles into the GI Tract before absorption (Pharmaceutic Phase)
Pharmaceutic Phase
First phase of Pharmaceutic, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics. Disintergration and Dissolution of Oral Meds occurs during this phase.
Pharmacokinetic Phase
Defn: The study of how the Body effects a drug

4 Phases: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
Absorption Phase
Movement of drug particles from the GI Tract to body fluids by Passive Abs, Active Abs, or Pinocytosis
First Pass Effect (Hepatic First Pass)
Process which the drug passes through the Liver
Bioavailability
Percentage of administered drug dose that reaches systemic circulation
Distribution Phase
Drug becomes available to body fluids and tissues
Influences of Distribution Phase
Blood Flow, Tissue Affinity, Protein Binding Affect
Metabolism Phase
Occurs primarily in Liver; can occur in GI tract

Most oral drugs are inactivated by the liver and excreted
Half Life (t1/2)
Time it takes one-half of drug concentration to be eliminated

90% of drug must be eliminated to be considered gone from body
Elimination/Excretion Phase
Occurs in the Kidneys be way of the bladder

Protein Bound drugs cannot be filtered
Creatine Clearance (CLcr)
Most accurated test used to determine Kidney function

Normal: 85-135mL/min
Note: Lower values found in the Elderly & Females
Pharmacodynamics
Study of a Drug's effect upon the body.
Prime Drug Effect
Desired
Disintegration
Breakdown of drug into smaller particles (Pharmaceutic Phase)
Dissolution
Dissolving of smaller particles into the GI Tract before absorption (Pharmaceutic Phase)
Pharmaceutic Phase
First phase of Pharmaceutic, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics. Disintergration and Dissolution of Oral Meds occurs during this phase.
Pharmacokinetic Phase
Defn: The study of how the Body effects a drug

4 Phases: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
Absorption Phase
Movement of drug particles from the GI Tract to body fluids by Passive Abs, Active Abs, or Pinocytosis
First Pass Effect (Hepatic First Pass)
Process which the drug passes through the Liver
Bioavailability
Percentage of administered drug dose that reaches systemic circulation
Distribution Phase
Drug becomes available to body fluids and tissues
Influences of Distribution Phase
Blood Flow, Tissue Affinity, Protein Binding Affect
Metabolism Phase
Occurs primarily in Liver; can occur in GI tract

Most oral drugs are inactivated by the liver and excreted
Half Life (t1/2)
Time it takes one-half of drug concentration to be eliminated

90% of drug must be eliminated to be considered gone from body
Elimination/Excretion Phase
Occurs in the Kidneys be way of the bladder

Protein Bound drugs cannot be filtered
Creatine Clearance (CLcr)
Most accurated test used to determine Kidney function

Normal: 85-135mL/min
Note: Lower values found in the Elderly & Females
Pharmacodynamics
Study of a Drug's effect upon the body.
Prime Drug Effect
Desired
Secondary Drug Effect
Can be Desired or Not Desired
Dose Response Effect
Minimal vs Maximal drug dose amount needed to produce a desired dose effect
Onset of Action
Time it takes to reach minimum effective concentration after the drug is administered
Peak Action
Drug reaches highest concentration in blood or plasma
Duration of Action
Length of time a drug has a pharmacological effect
Agonist
Drugs considered response producing
Agtagonist
Drugs considered response blocking
NonSpecific Drug Effects
Affects various sites of the body; Cholinergic Receptor Sites
NonSelective Drug Effects
Affect various receptors; Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, and Histamine Receptors
Low Therapeutic Index
Narrow margin of safety
High Therapeutic Index
Wide margin of safety; less danger of toxic affects
Therapeutic Window
Drug concentration should fall between minimum effect concentration and minimum toxic concentration
Peak Levels
Highest concentration of a drug at a specific time (rate of absorption)
Trough Level
Lowest plasma concentration of a drug
Loading Dose
Large initial dose when immediate drug response is desired; achieves rapid minimum effective concentration in the plasma
Oral/Enteral Medications
Slow acting, must pass through the GI Tract and the Liver; subject to First-Pass Affect

Includes: Suspensions, Tinctures, Elixirs, Extracts
Suspensions
Solid form which must be shook-up before being administered (ie Mylanta)
Tinctures
Drugs that are Alcohol Based
Elixirs
Drugs that are Sweet Smelling and Aromatic
Extracts
Drugs that are Mixed w/ H2O or Alcohol
PO
By Mouth
PEG
Feeding Tube
NGT
Nasogastric Tube
Parental Medications
Fast-Acting Medications; Avoid First-Pass Affect & GI Tract

Types: Intradermal, Subcutaneous, Intra Muscular, Intravenous
Intradermal Injections (ID)
Dermal Tissue (<0.5mL); Allergy, Diagnostic Testing(ie TB testing)
Subcutaneous Injections (SQ/SC)
Adipose Tissue (<1mL); Insulin, Heparin; Outer arms, abdomen, inner-thigh, upper-back
IntraMuscular Injections (IM)
Muscle Sites; Antibiotics, Hormones, Vaccines
IntraVenous Injection (IV)
Bloodstream; Emergency & NonEmergency Related; IV Push, IVPB
Transcutaneous Medications
Topical, Transdermal Patches, Instillations, Inhalers, Vaginal Applications
Med Orders Required Info
Pts Name, Date & Time, Drug Name, Dosage, Route, Frequency of Dosage, Physician's Sig
Secondary Drug Effect
Can be Desired or Not Desired
Dose Response Effect
Minimal vs Maximal drug dose amount needed to produce a desired dose effect
Onset of Action
Time it takes to reach minimum effective concentration after the drug is administered
Peak Action
Drug reaches highest concentration in blood or plasma
Duration of Action
Length of time a drug has a pharmacological effect
Agonist
Drugs considered response producing
Agtagonist
Drugs considered response blocking
NonSpecific Drug Effects
Affects various sites of the body; Cholinergic Receptor Sites
NonSelective Drug Effects
Affect various receptors; Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, and Histamine Receptors
Low Therapeutic Index
Narrow margin of safety
High Therapeutic Index
Wide margin of safety; less danger of toxic affects
Therapeutic Window
Drug concentration should fall between minimum effect concentration and minimum toxic concentration
Peak Levels
Highest concentration of a drug at a specific time (rate of absorption)
Trough Level
Lowest plasma concentration of a drug
Loading Dose
Large initial dose when immediate drug response is desired; achieves rapid minimum effective concentration in the plasma
Six Rights
R. Route, R. Drug, R. Dosage, R. Pts, R. Time, R. Reason, R. Documentation