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42 Cards in this Set

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Polypharmacy
the simultaneous use of multiple medications
Legend Drug
AKA perscription drug
Most common method of dosing
Body weight dosage calculations
When administering meds to pediatric patients
one must take into account the body surface area including weight and height, age and organ maturity
Age related chanes in Gastric pH (making it less acidic) may
alter the absorption of weakly acidic drugs, such as asprin
Metabolism issues
all pts in liver failure will have issues with Metabolism
Cultural Assessments
Assess Dietary habits, AKA pt does not eat pork for religious reasons
Informed Consent
Involves the careful explanation to the human test pt or research subject of the purpose of the study in which he or she is being asked to participate.
Includes: The procedures to be used, possible bedefits, and risks involved.
Followed by written documentation in the form of a consent form
Veractiy
The duty to tell the truth
Pt Education: Implementation
Develop large-print hondouts that relect the verbal info presented for the elderly or sight impaired individuals
Pt Education
Demo return Demo
I show, you show
Use of OTC's
May relive symptoms of a disorder but not the cause
Herbal Products
Are considered 'dietary supplements'
NO proven safety ratings for pregnant women
Stimulants-Adverse Effects
Restlessness, Hyperactive reflexes, Talkativeness, Confusion with periods of panic, Tachycardia, Fever
Somatic Pain
TX with nonopiod analgesic such as indomethacin. NSAIDs
Adverse Effects of Opiods
Respiratory depression: Always assess the respiratory rate before administering an opioid
Constipation: most common adverse effects associated with opioid analgesics
Opioid Tolerance
Result: Larger dose of opioids is required to maintain the same level of analgesia
Anorexiant
Sibutramine (Meridia)
Sibutramine (Meridia)-avoid other sources of CNS stimulants, (Coffee, tea, and colas) due to possible additional stimulation
ADHD Stimulants
Last dose should be given 4-6 hours before bedtime to reduce insomnia
Starting Ritalin therapy
Baseline height and weight because it may cause a temporary sloing of growth in prepubescent children
Migraine Medications
Ergot alkaloids may cause chest pain- Contact MD immediately
Taken to relieve the migraine NOT to prevent it
Migraine Considerations
Assess for coronary artery disease
Caffeine
Should be used with caution if there is a history of peptic ulcers
Hydantoins (seizure medication)
Scrupulous dental care is necessary to prevent gingival hypertorphy
Oral Antiepileptics
Abrupt discontinuation can lead to withdrawal seizures
AED's (Anti Epilepitc Drugs)
shoud not be discontinued abruptly
Opiod Analgesic Indications
Often given with adjuvant analgesic drugs to assist the primary drugs with pain relief
(Given with NSAIDS, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, Corticosteroids)
Dyskinesia
Difficulty in performing voluntary movements
Expected Therapeutic Responses from Parkinson's Disease
Improved mental status, Increased ability to perform ADL's
Anticholinergic Adverse Effects
Dry mouth use artificial saliva, sugarless gum, or hard candy to counteract dry mouth, urinary retention
Adverse Effects of Amantadine
Dizziness
Insomnia
Nausea
Catechol ortho-methyltransferase (COMT) Inhibitors
Reduction in the wearing off phenomenon
COMT Adverse Effects
Urine discoloration- COMT inhibitors may darken a patient's urine and sweat
Levodopa-Carbidopa
Combination drug more efficient in increasing the dopamine level in the brain
BuSjpar anxiolytic durg
Precise mechanism of action unknown, Always given scheduled not PRN, Indicated for the treatment of anxiety disorders
Tricyclic antidepressant
overdoses are notoriously lethal. The primary organ systems affected are the sentral nervous system and the cardivascular system, and death usually results from either seizures or dysrhythmias
Newer-Generation Antidepressants
Still take about 4 to 6 weeks to reach maximum clinical effectiveness.
SSRI's
High risk for suicide during early time frame of therapy or with dosage changes
EPS: Extrapyramidal symptoms
Tremors and muscle twitching
Antipsychotics-phenothiazines
Produce anticholinergic-like adverse effects of dry mouth, urinary hesitancy, and constipation
Antipsychotics-phenothiazines: Thorazine
Instruct the pt to wear sunscreen because of photosensitivity
Psychotherapeutic Drugs: Monitor for therapeutic effects
Decreased hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, garbled speech, and inablilty to cope