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124 Cards in this Set

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Pharmacokinetics
The study of the Absorption, Distrubution, Metabolism, and Elimination of drugs: what the body does to the drug.
Absorption
The transfer of a substance across a biological membrane.
Passive Diffusion
Movement of compounds across a membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (most common mechanism).
Active Transport
When energy is requred for the transport, e.g. Amino Acids, Sugars, Vitamins are compounds that are actively transported across membranes.
Solubility
The ability of a substance to dissolve in a given amount of another substance.
Lipids
Compounds that are soluable in nonpolar organic solvents; the major compontents of cell membranes.
Polar
Having both negative and positive portions; water soluable; hydrophilic.
Metabolism
The chemical transformation of a drug into another form
Sites of Drug Metabolism
The liver (most important); also, kidneys, GI tract, skin, lungs and blood
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Channels in the cytoplasm that transport, store, synthesize, and package molecules, and provide support fo rthe cell; can be smooth or rough
Endogenous
Occurring naturally in the body
Half-Life
The time required for drug concentrations in the blood/ plasma to decrease by 50%
First-Pass Effect
The removal of a portion of a drug by the liver as it passes through the liver for the first time
Additive Effects
Occur when the combination of two drugs with a similar mechanism of action produces an effect that is greater than either drug administered alone
Enteral Administration
Oral; Buccal; Sublingual; Rectal
Parenteral Administration
IV; Subcutaneous; Topical; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Inhalation; Intraperitoneal
Blood-Brain Barrier
Layer of tightly packed endothelial cells surrounded by astrocytes that restricts the types of molecules that can pass into the brain
Antagonistic effect
Drug interaction in which one drug reduces the effectiveness of another drug
Antagonist
Compound that binds to receptors but does not produce the normal physiologic effect
Potency
A measure of the strength of a drug per unit weight of the drug
Geriatrics
the branch of medicine that deals with the physiology and diseases of old age; >65 years of age; Changes=GI Tract, body composition (decrease); circulatory changes.
FDA Pregnancy Ratings
A (no risk); B (animals risk/no-risk, humans not studied); C (animal risk to fetus); D (human fetal risk, use in life threatening cases); X (contraindicated)
Contraindication
Situation in which a drug should not be used because the risk of use clearly outweighs any possible benefit
T or F: Foods and antacids can bind drugs and make them non-absorbable (chelation) and can be secreted instead of absorbed
TRUE
Teratogenicity
The ability to cause birth defects or fetal death
Adverse Reaction
Undesired drug effect; side effect
Area Under the Curve (AUC)
A measure of the bioavailability of the drug
Phase IV
Post-marketing studies
Proper sequence of drug development
Pre-clinical testing, IND, NDA
-itis
Infammation
-phagia
Eating, swallowing
-phasia
Speech
-megaly
Enlargement
-emia
Blood
-pathy
Disease
scler/o
Hardening
-ia
Condition
-rrhea
Discharge flow
-ole
-icle
-ule
Small, minute
-algia
Pain
-osis
Abnormal condition; increase
Ante
Before, in front of
Hypo
under, below deficient
erythr/o
red
leuk/o-
white
hyper-
over, above normal, excess
end/o-
in/within
peri-
around
brady-
slow
dys-
bad; painful; difficult
tachy-
rapid
Neurotransmitters
Dopamine, seratonin, and norepinephrin
True or False
Menenges cover brain and spinal cord
Neurotransmitters (definition)
Chemicals that transmit nerve impulses between synapses
Diencephalon
Part of the brain
Synapse
Space between two neurons or effector neurons
Thrombus
Stationary; aggregation of platlets, clotting factors attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery
Cells
The smallest structural units; organizations of various chemicals
Tissues
Organizations of similar cells
Organs
Organizations of different kinds of tissues
Systems
Organizations of many different kinds of organs
Homeostasis
Relative constancy of the internal environment; uses negative and positive feedback loops to maintain or restore homeostasis.
Dorsal and Ventral
Two major cavities of the body
Dorsal cavity
1. Cranial cavity contains brain
2. Spinal cavity contains spinal cord
Ventral cavity
1. Thoracic cavity (heart, trachea, lungs)
2. Abdominopelvic cavity (stomach, liver, gall-bladder, pancreas, spleen, repro organs, bladder
Feedback Control Loop
Highly complex and integrated communication control network, classified as negative or positive; more common=negative
Atoms
Smallest particle of a pure substance that still has the chemical properties of that substance; composed of protons, electrons, and neutrons
Nucleus
Central core of the atom contain
Atomic number
Total number of protons in an atom's nucleus
Element
A pure substance; made up of only one kind of atom
Molecule
A group of atoms bound together in a group
Compound
Substances whose molecules have more than one kind of atom
Chemical bonds
Form to make atoms more stable; outermost energy level of each atoms is full; atoms may share e- or donate or borrow
Ionic bonds
Ions form when an atom gains or loses electrons in its outer energy level to become stable
Covalent bonds
From when atoms shared their outer energy to fill up and thus become stable; do not easily dissociate in water
Ribosome
Organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that synthesizes proteins; Protein factory
Lysosome
Membranous organelles containing enzymes that can dissolve most cellular compounds; digestive bags/suicide bags
Organelle
Cell organ
Organic molecules
Contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds
Inorganic molecules
Do not contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds (water, some acids, bases, salts)
Neutralization
Occurs when acids and bases mix and form salts
Nucleic acids
Made up of nucleotide units; sugar; phosphate; DNA; RNA; direct overall body structure and function
DNA
Cell's master code for assembling proteins; uses deoxyribose as the sugar and A, T, C and G as bases; forms a double helix shape
RNA
Working copy of a gene; uses ribose as the sugar and A, U, C and G as bases
Phospholipids
Phosphate-containing fat molecule; form membranes of cells
Lipids
Fats and oils
Triglycerides
Made up of one glyceral unit and three fatty acids; store energy for later use
Atomic mass
Combined total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Muscle tissue
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
Skeletal muscle
Urinary system
System responsible for excreting liquid waste from the body
Digestive system
Organs that work together to ensure proper digestion and absorption of nutrients
Spleen
Largest lymphoid organ; filters blood, destroys worn out red blood cells, salvages iron from hemoglobin, and serves as a blood reservoir; part of the lymphatic system
Phagocytosis
Ingestion and digestion of articles by a cell; process permits a cell to engulf and eat foreign material
Pinocytosis
The active transport mechanism used to transfer fluids or dissolved substances into cells
Synapse
Junction between adjacent neurons; microscopic space between cells; place where impulses are transmitted from one neuron (presynaptic neuron) to another neuron (postsynaptic neuron)
Neuron components
Cell body, axon, dendrite
Glia/neuroglia
Special types of supporting cells; "glue" that holds the functioning neurons together and protects them
Meninges
Fluid-containing membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals by which neurons communicate
Types of neurotransmitters
Dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, endorphins, enkephalins, acetylcholine
Diencephalon
Small but important part of the brain located between the midbrain below and the cerebrum above; contsist of the hypothalamus and the thalamus
Sympathetic nervous system
Part of the autonomic nervous system; ganglia are connected to the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord; functions as an emergency system; "fight or flight"
Parasympathetic nervous system
Part of the autonomic nervous system; ganglia are connected to the brainstem and the sacral segments of the spinal cord; controls many visceral effectors under normal conditions
Endocrine
Secreting into the blood or tissue fluid rather than into a duct; opposite of exocrine
Exocrine
Secreting into a duct; opposite of endocrine
Beta Cell
Pancreatic islet cell that secretes insulin
Alpha Cell
Pancreatic cell that secretes glucagon
Prolactin
Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland during pregnancy to stimulate the breast development needed for lactation
Hyperglycemia
Higher-than-normal blood glucose concentration
Hypoglycemia
Lower-than-normal blood glucose concentration
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells
Leukocyte
White blood cells; defend the body from microorganisms that have succeeded in invading our body.
Neutrophil
White blood cell that stains readily with neutral dyes; most numerous of the phagocytes; functions in immune defense
Thrombus
Stationary blood clot
Embolus
A blood clot or other substance that is moving in the blood and may block a blood vessel
Pericardium
Membrane that surrounds the heart
Mycardium
Muscle of the heart
Endocardium
Thin layer of very smooth tissue lining each chamber of the heart
Artery
Vessel carrying blood away from the heart
Capillary
Tiny vessels that connect arterioles and venules
Vein
Vessel carrying blood toward the heart
Systole
Contraction of the heart muscle
Diastole
Relaxation of the heart, interposted between its contractions; opposite of systole
Blood pressure
The pressure or push of blood; Pressure of blood in the blood vessels, expressed as systolic pressure or diastolic pressure