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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fallacy
error in reasoning
Fallaccy of Authority
uses position of authority not evidence
Ad Hominem Arguement
gossip columns; proving opinion wrong by attacking a person's belief
Appeal to Force
threatens opponent to have them agree
Appeal to Pity
one who uses sympathy to have others agree
Appeal to Ridicule
one puts down another's argument by making fun of them
Hasty Generalization
too few cases to support an argument
Slippery Slope
when the argument is wrong from the beginning and contines to be incorrect throughout the argument
Begging the Question
uses conclusion as a premise
Equivocation

____________

Red Herring
word is defined differntly as a premise then as the conclusion
_____________

shifts focus to another topic
Deductive
given the premises and valid form the conclusion MUST be true
Inductive
has a weaker probability of truth
:.
Conclusion to follow
Strusture for a Valid Form
all A's are B's
all B's are C's
------------------
:. all A's are C's
T/F
If Conclusion = False
AND
Premise(s) = TRUE
it is NOT VALID
TRUE
Square of Opposition
Affirmative:
A: universal affirmative
All _____ are ____
IF A IS FALSE O IS TRUE
S.O
Negative:
E: Universal Negative
No ____ are ____
IF E IS FALSE I IS TRUE
S.O.
Particular Affirmative
I: Partial Inclusion
Some ____ are ____
IF I IS FLASE E IS TRUE
S.O.
Particular Negative
O: Partial Exclusion
Some ___ are not ___
IF O IS FLASE A IS TRUE
VENN DIAGRAM:
shade if it isn't true

ex: all s are p
shade s
VENN DIAGRAM:
'x'
one member possible
some s are p--some s are not p
'x' in between--'x' in s