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50 Cards in this Set

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[Marine and Fresh]

Fresh water includes
a. Surface water
--ponds and lakes
--rivers and streams

b. groundwater (also refers to as aquifers)
--these are underground reservoirs of water
Freshwater has a wide ranges of microbes depending on these environmental measures/factors: (5)
1. Temperature (0-100 C)
2. pH
3. Nutrients
4. Oxygen availability
5. Sunlight
Marine Waters covers about ____ of the Earth
70%
Marine waters is relatively Homogeneous (stable or same).

Give the properties of of Marine waters that are relatively homogeneous:
1. temperature (0-40 deg. C)
2. pH (6.5-8.3)
3. Dissolved solids (3.5g/100gH2O)
4. high salinity, not variable

notes: in marine water you do not have much variability
One area in which you do have variability in marine water is
**nutrient availability--mostly by coastal areas that you will find the highest amt of nutrients

**Sunlight-- limited to 50-125m
depends on turbidity and season

**Oxygen availability-- varies b/c of the availability of mixing
Marine water has ____ pressure.
hydrostatic pressure

**large variations: 1atm/10m
Organisms found in marine water are:
1. primary producer organisms-- diatoms, dinoflagellates, and blue-green algae. --> conduct photosynthesis producing oxygen as well as fixing CO2 and nitrogen

**Consumers-- organisms heterotrophic bacteria, protozoa, and fungi---> feed upon what the producer make and upon each other

**Decomposers-- strict facultative anaerobe--> inhibit the bottom of the ocean areas that lack oxygen. Break complex organic material into things like nitrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane
[water pollution]

Define pollution
means a condition that renders water useless for particular purpose

e.g if I use tap water in someone’s industrial process when they need to have de-ionized water, that’s pollution as well. It may have too much salt in it, which causes a problem. Again, the definition of pollution is usually a condition that renders water useless for a particular purpose.
[types of pollutants] name three types of water pollutions:
1. Organic wastes
2. Industrial wastes
3. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
organic wastes: What kind of waste make up organic wastes?
a. domestic sewage (BOD)
b. pathogenic organisms

**there are a lot of microbes that have been linked to waterborne diseases. Most of them are bacteria. Anything that can be washed in water and ingested in water that later cause disease.
Industrial wastes: what kind of industrial waste makes up for this pollutants?
a. metals (heavy metals)
b. Minerals (sulfur, iron, salinity, sediments)

**industrial waters also include (1) organic wastes from food processors, (2) washes manure into water source e.g cow, (3) synthetic pollution, this includes oil spills and ship leaking oil, (4) radioactive pollution--like radon and uranium (5) heat-- oxygen solubility descreases
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): what waste makes up this pollutant?
**a way of measuring the amt of oxygen in the environment

a. ...the amt of oxygen required to degrade organic compounds..
**means we are measuring whether we can grow heterotrophic organisms in water that can degrade organic substances.

b. "Excess" nutrient loading leads to increased biomass, which uses up the available oxygen

e.g If I dump in a bunch of organic material into the environment, it’s great for the short term because you have a biomass that begins to grow. But if the biomass gets to a certain level, they can suck all the oxygen out of that water. Therefore, all of the things that require oxygen die and sink to the bottom.
define eutrophication
excessive growth-- where you have an intensive increase in biomass.
BOD is a measure of
how much organic material a receiving water can absorb
[water purification]

Name 6 ways we can purify water or how nature purify water?
1. nature purification
2. drinking water treatment
3. drinking water process
4. tests for microbiological water quality
5. sewage treatment
6. septic tanks and composting toilets
[describes how these 6 ways purify water]

1. natural purification
**most of the water stored in oceans and groundwater evaporate and condense, forming snow and rainfall. This is where we obtain freshwater. Freshwater is collected on the surface or in the groundwater. The groundwater eventually makes its way into the ocean or we can access that water in the ground

a. Percolation-- aquifers
--percolation = to cause (liquid, for example) to pass through a porous substance or small holes; filter.
--aquifers = underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc

b. Mountain snow melt and springs to streams
2. Drinking Water Treatment

How do you treat drinking water?
1. Start with the best quality
(a) groundwater-- no treatment necessary
(b) Surface water-- need treatment
**Surface Water Treatment Rule (USEPA, 1990)-- "All" surface waters must have been filtered and disinfected

2. Hold in reservoir (is a structure for measuring water quality and purifying water
3. Drinking water process (we will go through the process of water treatment/purification):

First what are the 4 most important drinking water process/steps:
1. Flocculation
2. Sedimentation
3. Filtration
4. Disinfection
(continue we will go through the water process)

The there will be inlets on the reservoir what do they do?
Measure water quality and do a pH adjustment
After the measurement of pH the water enters the plant at this point you want to add your initial disinfectants-- what is this disinfectants?
an oxidizer (chlorine/potassium permangenate)

**the oxidizer will kill some of the organisms right away and help you break down complex organic components into pieces easier for microbes to chew
After that you are going to _____ (where you have to get rid of microbes)
aerate
How do you aerate?
you do this by coagulation

**the microbes are negatively charged and you are adding something positive charge (alum) to have the organism stick to each other.
1. Flocculation

Alum and microbes stick to each other and you have a ____
flocculent (having a fluffy appearance, look like snow and fall by gravity)

**flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into floc
______ plays an important role in flocculation.
gravity
step 2: Sedimentation

Through the mixing process, you start to get more and more flocculation. Knowing this what does sedimentation basin do?
If you have a sedimentation basin, the water goes into it and the big parts start to filter down as the particulates at the top of the water fall down, they will hit other organisms on the way and form large aggregates. The whole thing settles down, forming sludge (and this is removed)
step 3: filtration (journey out of the plant)

Describes what the filtration steps do.
1. sand-- The water goes through the sand, which takes out any flocculent material. At a treatment plant, they will have 5-6 filtration basins and run three at a time.

note: After this, there is a pH adjustment using lime or sodium hydroxide
Filtration:

What is a component people put in the sand filter to get rid of the odor of chlorine or algae?
**activated carbon-- they will take the odor of chlorine and algae and put it in the sand where they can reuse it.
Step 4: Disinfection

What happen during this steps? What is used during this steps?
a. **chlorination or chloramination (treatment of chlorine--control bacteria growth and has to keep the pH range narrow)
**ozonation and chloramination

two rules for disinfection in water plant
b. Total Coliform Rule

c. Disinfection By-Products Rule
[Microbial Water Quality: how do we measure water quality?]

What is coliforms?
they are bacteria
What is the disinfection byproducts rule?
**the purpose of this rule is to control trihalomethanes (THMs)
--there may be a link b/w cancer and THMs, but too much disinfectants can be carcinogenic as well (but none of these hasn't been proven yet)
What is fecal coliforms?
they are a growing group of bacteria (can become a pollution)--- indicators of water pollution

**bacteria that inhibits the intestines of warm-blooded animals-- their survival is similar to pathogens and are relative easy to measure.
What is the "total coliform rules"?
100 ml samples must be test for presence/absence of coliforms and must follow the 4 methods (test for micro-bile)
There are 4 approved genera methods for measuring coliform organisms: what are they?
1. Multiple Tube Fermentation Test (MTFT)
2. Membrane Filtration (MF)
3. Clark's Presence/Absence Test (PA)
4. MMO-MUG (this test does not require the organism to grow and simply measures the enzyme.

note: the first 1-3 testes require the organism to grow
[test for microbiological water quality] What are other organisms that we are concern?
a. Iron-sulfur bacteria-- grow in water distribution ways and will block it up over time
[5. Sewage/Waste water treatment]

What are the 7 primary steps of sewage treatment?
1. Bar Screen
2. Grit Chamber/Grease Removal
3. Primary Sedimentation
4. Secondary Treatment (90-99% BOD)
5. Sludge Digester
6. Disinfection
7. Tertiary Treatment (N and P removal)
1. Bar screen

What is bar screen and what does it do?
You start with a bar screen ( bars for separating small from large pieces of crushed rock)--- which takes out large materials
2. Grit chamber/Grease removal

after bar screen it goes to a grit chamber... what does this do?
where the oils, grease, and fat are removed from the water
3. primary sedimentation

what does it do?
--this gives 20-50% BOD removal
**good at removing protozoans because they are heavier and can be sediment out.
**has little effect on viruses
4. Secondary treatment

*describe
--it's where most of the treatment takes place.
--get an additional 90%-99% BOD removal

note: BOD = Indicator of the polluting capacity of an effluent (water mixed with waste matter), where pollution is caused by the takeup of dissolved oxygen by microorganisms that decompose the organic material present in the effluent
IN the secondary treatment there are couple of ways to treat waste. Name two:
1. activated sludge

2. Trickling Filter
1. activated sludge (AS)

what is it? what does it do?
this is where you have a chamber where all along the bottom are aerators--> working aerobically to break down the organic wastes of sewage
**pathogen reduction better here with 90-99% of viruses removal
what is the problem/disadvantage with activated sludge?
the problem is that you have a finite mono-culture (culturing one type of organism that will chew on the organic material). --What can happens is that if something toxic is introduced into your waste stream, such as metals, it is going to kill these microorganisms. If you kill even just a group of them, you can no longer efficiently treat your wastewater.

**Another problem is that a lot of air requires lots of energy. It’s VERY ENERGY-INTENSIVE.
2. Trickling Filter

what is it? what does it do?
trickling filter is a big open vat with arms that go out in a circle distributing water. It’s not as efficient and quick as activated sludge; the water needs to re-circulate through the trickling filter. Pulled out and discharge microbes.
What is the big advantage of trickling filter?
**it is very ecologically diverse-- can filter and discharge all kinds of microbes/stuff such as algae to protozoans, little critters, and absorb toxic material much better.
step 4: sludge digester

What is sludge digester?
Microbes are efficient in breaking things down and you end up with sludge (solid waste material)--> where they (sludge) are capture and put it in an anaerobic chamber and the rxn produces methane (energy use to power the plant).
You'll still end up with biosolid material. What do you do with it?
(A) If you have a class A biosolid, you can put that anywhere by law. Some places will treat their stuff and sell it at nurseries

(B) Class B biosolids, on the other hand, are not as well treated. You can landfill it or use it non-food crops
step 5: water disinfection:

Name two treatments: describe them
1. chlorination (to kill THMs)
**problem: made have too much chlorine in your product which can be dangerous, so have to dechlorinate it.
**Chlorination dis not effective against cyst forms, such as Cryptosporidium---> an alternative is

2. UV light
**works very well and works well against viruses; can get rid of cyst form
**problem requires high maintenance costs, and higher capital costs
step 6: Tertiary Treatment (N and P removal)

In California DHA Title 22, you are turning wastewater into drinking water. What are the steps to do this or purifying techniques to do this?
**you are treating it as if it were surface water

1. flocculation
2. UV and reverse osmosis
3. Nitrogen Stripping
4. Activated Carbon
6. Pathogen Control (Disinfection)
[Type 6 of water purification: Septic Tanks and Composting toilets]

what are septic tanks?
an anaerobic chamber coming from a single domicile (house)

**A sewage-disposal tank in which a continuous flow of waste material is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria.
what is composting toilet?
A human waste disposal system consisting of a toilet that uses little or no water connected to a specially built tank in which waste material is decomposed by aerobic bacteria.