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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the most popular psychologist major job?
college faculty member
Human factors require the study of
"bonehead" experiments are due to a lack of
ergonomic study
ergonomics quote
"honor thy user"
def: ergonomics
the study of interactions between people and technology
To be a good human factors specialist you need:

explain these (expls)
1) basic sensory: rods and cones
2) sound localization: sirens
3) tactile perception: distinguishing by touch
4) social psychology
5) cognitive psychology
Rods and cones (Cones don't work in dim lights) is an example of
basic sensory
sirens are different; the body knows which side sound comes from because one side hears waves first. This is an example of
sound localization
distinguishing by touch; we have physical constraints we can only exert or accept limited force. examples: child proof caps, astroturn, lathe. This is an example of
tactile perception
Posner and Boies' dual tasking (letter marching and tone detecting) experiment is an example of
cognitive psychology
Posner and Boies experiment (dual tasking) concluded that
switching attention between tasks has a cognitive "Cost"
Experiment by Middlemist nad personal space is an example of
social psychology
What is science?
asking questions and making sense of the answers
In ________ psychology, questions regard human behavior.
In experimental psychology, questions regard _____________.
human behavior
Answers to questions found by the _______________.
scientific method
people do not seem to work as hard in groups as they do alone. This is called________.
social loafing.
What is social loafing?
people dont work as hard in groups as they do alone
the "seizure boy" experiment is an example of __________.
social loafing
Kitty Genoveve's killing is an example of ________.
social loafing
Examples of social loafing
Ladder girl, Seizure boy, Kitty Genoveve
Social psycholgoy Bibb Latane studied __________
social loafing
Ringlemann's report on rope pulling is an exmpale of _____
social loafing
helping people out
Latane explained social loafing by a principle called _______________.
diffusion of responsibility
def: diffusion of responsiblity
people in larger groups feel less responsible for its overall success or failure.
The principe of diffusion of responsibility is a result of _______.
social loafing
Billy's Graham's crusades result in ________.
social loafing
How do we fix social loafing?
Latane found that when people know about SL, it disappears.
The 2 exceptions to social loafing include:
sports teams, war
Pierce described various ways people come to accept ideas:
1. tenacity
2. authority
3. science
people tend to accept ideas that have been around a long time.
people tend to accept ideas that have been around along time. this is called believing because of
tenacity is widely used in
advertising and politics, racial stereotypes
advertising, stereotypes and politics use this to convince people of ideas
problems with tenacity
1) the idea may be wrong
2) its hard to correct wrong ideas.
people accept ideas that come from authority figures
televangelists and mapmakers make people believe through
believe through science:
poeple accept ideas through science
Properties of Science:
1) science is repeatable: findings from one lab should be replicable in another
2) science is empirical: we rely on data, not on faith
3) science is self-correcting: data is made public for evaluation. old ideas are refined.
findings from one lab should be replicable in another. This makes science _______.
we dont accept ideas on faith; we rely on data. this makes science _______.
Data is made public for evaluation. Old ideas are constantly refined. This makes science _______.
self correcting
the major advantage of science:
science provides an objective way to evaluate ideas.
Scientific endeavors entail 3 main goals:
1) description
2) prediction
3) explanation
in social loafing, people slack off in groups. this is an exmpale of _____.
Social loafing increases as groups increase. this is an example of _____.
Once we describe and predict information, we try to ________
explain why it happens.
__________ are never final.
the 3 goals of science entail 3 main research methods:
3 kinds of research
observational, experimental, correlational
trying to record some behavior in the world, we use ______ research.
Naturalistic observation
watching behavior in its natural state
Watching behavior in its natural state is called
Naturalistic Observation
bird watching is an example of
observational research, naturalistic observation
in some ways, naturalistic observation in an _______
ideal method
why it naturalistic observation an "ideal" method?
1) its cheap
2) you dont need to interfere with normal environment
3) the data has high ecological validity compared to a lab
Naturalistic Observation is important to psychology because
it provides insight that'll lead to research later in the lab.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt was interested in facial expression so he used ________
systematic observation
Eibl-Eibesfeldts eyebrow flash occured during:
greetings, gifts and flirting everywhere but Japan
details to consider in observational research:
1) chosing the behavior (watch out for overloads)
2) reactivity
3) reliability
Eibl-Eibesfeldt's sideways camera is an example of ________
unobtrusive observation
Dianne Fossey living with gorillas is an example of ______
participant observation
spying aka
unobtrusive observation
Why is reliability a consideration?
you must ensure you see things accurately especially if you already have a theory in mind
How do we test reliability/
using 2 or more observers and see if they agree
using 2 or more observers tests ____
Variations of Naturalistic Observation
Case Studies, Surveys
Eibl Eibesfeldt's facial expression experiment is examples of
Naturalistic observation, unobtrusive observation, systematic observation
Dianne Fossey's gorilla experiment is examples of
participant observation, naturalistic observation
def: case studies
intense investigation of a single individual or certain group
Festinger's investigation of alien believers is an example of
a case study
problem with case studies
1 or 2 cases may not reflect the general population
____ are used to study large samples adn touch on a few topics
precaution with surveys
people try to present themselves in a socially acceptible light
advantages/dis of observational research
1/ helpful EARLY in research when need direction
2/ some cant be studied in lab
1/ its only descriptive -- can not control
2/ hard to repeat
3/hard to maintain objectivity
Dr. Blondlot and his n-ray experiment problem
didn't maintain objectivity
Observational Research is primarily
Correlational Research is primarily
the relationsihps between smoking and lung cancer is an example of ___
correlational research
Correlations have 2 basic properties:
1) magnitude
2) sign indicates direction
the strengtho f the relationship between variables is ____
indicates the strength of a relationship between variables
if there is no correlation, the magnitude is
is magnitude independent of the sign?
the sign indicates the ______ of the relationship between variables
the _____ indicates the direction of the relationahip between variables
do correlations imply causation?
why dont correlations imply causation?
1. we dont know which factor precedes the other
2. other factors may be the real cuase. (confounding variables)
other factors that may be the real cause are called
confounding variables
Whast are correlations good for?
1. they allow accurate predictions
2. they lay the groundwork for experiments
confounding factors
other factors that may be the real cuase of something
difference with experimental research and corre/observ.
in experiments, we CONTROL the situation, letting us pinpoint causal factors
experiments require _____ and _____ of variables
selection control and manipulation
in experiments, there are 3 variables:
1) dependent
2) independent
3) control
independent variables
are manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent variables/measures
observed and recorded by experimenter
control variables
potential independent variables that are controlled by the experimenter
these variables could affect behavior but are not of interest
control variables
control variables aka
confounds or nuisance variables
Using multiple independent variables lets you find _____.
def: interaction
the effect of one independent variable is modulated by another
Piliavin's findings during the subway car experiment are examples of
when there are parallel lines
Pitfalls of experimental research
1) sometimes dont work
2) perhaps iv has no effect when it should
3) " iv has effect when it shouldnt
Experiments may fail due to:
1) poorly chosen operational definitions
2) uncontrolled confounds
3) demand characteristics (experiment hinter/subject guesses the hypothesis)
birthmark and music distraction is example of
operational definitions
def demand characteristics:
aspects of an experiment that provide clues about the desired outcome
an experimenter hinting at certain behavior is an example of
demand characteristics
perpetual barriers
this theory says this gives us protection from unpleasant stimuli
normal/cuss words an example of
perpetual barriers thoery