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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensation
the stimulation of sense organs
perception
the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input
lens
a transparent eye structure taht focuses the light rays falling on the retina
nearsightedness
close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry
farsightedness
distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry
pupil
the opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye
retina
the neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images and sends visual info to the brain
cones
specialized visual receptors taht play a key role in daylightvision and color vision
fovea
a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot
rods
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision
dark adaptation
the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination
light adaptation
the process in which the eyes become less sensitvie to light in high illumination
receptive field of a visual cell
the retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of that cell
feature detectors
neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli
subtractive color mixing
works by removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there
additive color mixing
works by superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself
color blindness
encompasses a variety of deficiencies in the abiliy to distinguish among colors
complementary colors
pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together
afterimage
a visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed
opponent process theory
holds that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonist responses to three pairs of colors
reversible figure
a drawing that is compatible with two different interpretations that can shift back and forth
a perceptual set
a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
feature analysis
the process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form
bottom-up processing
a progression from individual elements to the whole
top-down processing
a progression from the whole to the elements
the phi phenomenon
the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession
depth perception
involves interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are
binocular depth cues
clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes
retinal disparity
refers to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object
monocular depth cues
clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone
pictorial depth cues
cues about distance taht can be given in a flat picture
perceptual constancy
tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input
a visual illusion
involves an apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality
impossible figures
objects taht can be represented in two-dimensional pictures but cannot exist in three-dimensional space
cochlea
fluid-filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing
basilar membrane
runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells
gustatory system
sensory system for taste
sensory adaptation
a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
olfactory system
sensory system for smell
place theory
perception of pitch corresponds to the vibrations of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane
frequency theory
perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates