• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/119

Click to flip

119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social impact theory
the first person you add to a group has the most influence. each additional member has less of an impact.
SIT people like to be
right and liked
liking to be right:
informational influence
we conform to gain rewards and avoid punishment
normative influence
norms
expectations held by a group of people about what behaviors are right or wrong or good or bad
explicit norms
written are spoken openly. ex: road signs
implicit
when you're in someones home you dont put your feet on the dinner table.. how the rules are not totally out there.
auto kinetic effect
a test to show how groups can influence an individuals behavior. if thoughts were spoken aloud about the movement of the light, their opinions begin to converge.

- in the other study asch had planted people to give wrong answers in the audience and people listened to them.
indoctrination into cults in four stages
1. softening up: people targeted when vulnerable
2. compliance: recruits feel important and loved, experiment new behaviors in diet and sleep and appearance (sounds like dating)
3. internalization: begin to consider the demands and beliefs of the cult to be more accepted
4. consolidation: become loyal and demonstrate their allegiance with costly behaviors like leaving school
identification
when people are united in substance (share attitudes, activities, idea, posessions). the more a person identifies with a group, the more power that group has to influence us
reference group
group has the power to influence us through identification. because we tend to identify with reference groups we dress the way they do and act the way they act.
ethnocentrism
belief that one's own culture is the standard by which others should be evaluated.
groupthink
members are so concerned with getting along and having the same opinion that they dont disagree when they should
strong culture
employees identify so much to their companies that they conform to the orgs values and actions.
____ are more likely to conform than _____
women/ men. men are more likely to follow men.
peer-suasion
2/3 of students found that peer pressure is the most important factor in determining whether teens begin smoking
personality
1. managers with many ways to handle problems (high cognitive complexity)are less likely to conform.
2. people who like to control their lives are less likely to conform
3. high self monitors are more likely to conform.
4. people high in a need for affiliation and group identification conform more often
culture
1. power distance: people who obey authority prefer equality in decision making. (high on power distance, more likely to conform)
2. uncertainty avoidance: cultures that avoid uncertainty have little tolerance for ambiguity. cultures that are more uncomfortable with uncertainty are more likely to conform.
3. some cultures can be characterized as masculine because they value strength and assertiveness. masculine cultures conform less than feminine (scandinavian, portugal, netherlands)
4. individualistic cultures value personal goals and self autonomy collectivistic believes in group goals and harmony. individualistic are less conforming.
why are people motivated to conform?
1. group locomotion hypothesis: members of a group are motivated to achieve the groups goals.
2. social comparison theory: you decide if you're attractive, tall, weird by comparing yourself to others. this can lead to conformity if everyone noone spanks their kids and you do.
3. consistency theory: it is uncomfortable to disagree with a group that you like and find attractive to find balance you say that that group was correct all along.
4. epistemological weighting hypothesis: we gain knowledge A- perceptionally through trial and error and perceptual observation and B- socially through observation and communication with others. THE DEGREE to which a person conforms DEPENDS on how much WEIGHT a person gives to the personal or social knowledge.
5. hedonistic hypothesis: we conform to avoid pain and gain pleasure.
much adult behavior is based as SOCIAL PROOF
tendency to see an action as more appropriate when others are doing it.
viral marketing
relying on social proof or word of mouth. if people hear about others using a product, they're more likely to use it themselves.
ostracism
the act of excluding and ignoring others. ostracized people may behave in more socially acceptable ways in order to get attention.
de-individuation
1. tendency to get "lost in the crowd." people are less aware of themselves and how others will perceive them. being in a large group makes a person more anonymous.
2. US soldier that massacred people explained from de individuation.
3. larger crowds can cause more deindividuation.
4.
two types of SELF AWARENESS
1. public self awareness: how we view ourselves as social objects and our concerns about our appearance or the impression we make on others.
2. private self awareness: focus on hidden aspects of ourselves like thoughts, feelings and perceptions.
DEINDIVIDUATION IS DECREASED ONLY WITH A CONNECTION TO OUR PRIVATE SELF AWARENESS.

2. private self awareness:
Social loafing
reduction in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively compared with when they work individually or coactively.
what causes social loafing?
1. collective effort model: we tend to get lazy if we don't expect our efforts to lead to personally valued outcomes or if we don't think our effort will be instrumental in obtaining those outcomes. (if we dont get a reward or the credit we desire)
2. free ride effect suggests that when we can get away with it, people try to benefit from the efforts of others. they slack off when others are working. they can hide in the crowd.
3. sucker effect: when people suspect that others may be taking a free ride. rather than being a "sucker" they slack off to match the level of work done by others.
social faciliation effect
if people in the group think they will be evaluated by the group, they may work harder than when they work alone.
more or less likely to social loaf
1. people who are more open to new experiences and have a high need for cognition are more likely to loaf
2. if people think they are unique superior than they dont like to work hard because it wont allow people to be aware of their "superior talents" but they work hard on difficult tasks.
social compensation
reflects that they are special and unique ..people that think they're special and won't do the "easy work" probably are loafers
viral marketing
relying on social proof or word of mouth. if people hear about others using a product, they're more likely to use it themselves.
ostracism
the act of excluding and ignoring others. ostracized people may behave in more socially acceptable ways in order to get attention.
de-individuation
1. tendency to get "lost in the crowd." people are less aware of themselves and how others will perceive them. being in a large group makes a person more anonymous.
2. US soldier that massacred people explained from de individuation.
3. larger crowds can cause more deindividuation.
4.
two types of SELF AWARENESS
1. public self awareness: how we view ourselves as social objects and our concerns about our appearance or the impression we make on others.
2. private self awareness: focus on hidden aspects of ourselves like thoughts, feelings and perceptions.
DEINDIVIDUATION IS DECREASED ONLY WITH A CONNECTION TO OUR PRIVATE SELF AWARENESS.

2. private self awareness:
Social loafing
reduction in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively compared with when they work individually or coactively.
what causes social loafing?
1. collective effort model: we tend to get lazy if we don't expect our efforts to lead to personally valued outcomes or if we don't think our effort will be instrumental in obtaining those outcomes. (if we dont get a reward or the credit we desire)
2. free ride effect suggests that when we can get away with it, people try to benefit from the efforts of others. they slack off when others are working. they can hide in the crowd.
3. sucker effect: when people suspect that others may be taking a free ride. rather than being a "sucker" they slack off to match the level of work done by others.
social faciliation effect
if people in the group think they will be evaluated by the group, they may work harder than when they work alone.
more or less likely to social loaf
1. people who are more open to new experiences and have a high need for cognition are more likely to loaf
2. if people think they are unique superior than they dont like to work hard because it wont allow people to be aware of their "superior talents" but they work hard on difficult tasks.
social compensation
reflects that they are special and unique ..people that think they're special and won't do the "easy work" probably are loafers
connotative and denotative meaning
connotative: thoughts and emotions associated with a word. people who have seen charlottes web or babe would have a different interpretation of the word pig.
denotative: a words direct explicit dictionary definition.
symbol
something that represents something else
ultimate terms
words or phrases that are highly revered, widely accepted or carry a special power in a culture.

three different terms
god terms
devil terms
charismatic terms

their ability to persuade may change over time. people use focus groups to see what kind of words should be used for a campaign.
god terms
-- carry greatest blessing in a culture and demand sacrifice or obedience. "family values" "critical thinking" "balanced budget"
devil terms
associated with abhorring and disgusting. racist, terrorist. what is evil... detestable.
charismatic terms
associated with something observable.
rebel labels
extreme, alternative, and indie
euphemisms and doublespeak
use of words to make the worse appear the better.

doublespeak: ambiguous or evasive language
euphemism: inoffensive terms substituted for offensive ones)

people dont get fired, businesses downsize.
prostitute is now person who sells sex persistently.
people use euphemisms (2 reasons)
1. because euphemisms are less threatening and help "save face"
2. to be regarded as tasteful and sensitive which ay help them save face
language intensity: profanity
symbols are arbitrary yet people react to them as if they are real. there are very strong connotations associated with the F bomb.

sexual words recieved the most negative responses. the conclusion is that if you want to be perceived as credible than its best to clean up your language.
political correctness
issues of inclusive speech and advocacy of nonracist, nonageist and non sexist terminology. :speaking about people with disabilities. by trying to portray people with disabilities as people that are NOT victims, people are more likely to see that as normal.
vividness (still intense language)
vivid info captures and holds our attention. the glass crashed and shattered is more interesting than the glass broke. vividness can be useful but it has to match with the message pretty on point so that people don't feel distracted.
Language intensity defined
quality of language which indicates the degree to which the speakers language deviates from neutrality
4 theories:

-reinforcement theories
-powerless
-
sapir whorf hypothesis
the language that we use determines how we see the world

if women are described in ways that makes them seem more inferior than they are.
Reinforcement Theory
assumes that people are motivated to avoid pain and seek pleasure. language intensity can impact this theory by making people want to agree more or less.
language expectancy theory:
assumes that we have expectations about what types of language are normal to use when trying to persuade other people. when people violate our expectations with intense words than we may hurt the effectiveness depending on if the violation was positive or negative for a person.
assumes that we have expectations about what types of language are normal to use when trying to persuade other people. when people violate our expectations with intense words than we may hurt the effectiveness depending on if the violation was positive or negative for a person.
explains the effects of intensity on persuasion. to be persuaded you must first attend to and comprehend a persuasive message. intense language may make the message seem more extreme when a person is trying to accept or reject a sources position.
communicate accommodation theory
when we communicate with others we adjust our style of speaking to their style in order to gain approval and increase communicate efficiency. more intense language works better with people who use more intense language and vice versa.
Powerless Language and Persuasion (hesitations, etc.);
- too many ums
-- hesitation
-- hedges : i guess i sort of like you
-- intensifiers: i REALLY agree with you and i like you VERY much.
-- polite forms: excuse me, if you wouldn't mind id appreciate if you'd please shut the door
-- tag questions: this is fun don't you think? more than yesterday isn't it?
-- disclaimers: i know this is a dumb question but ..
-- deictic phrases: that man over there is the one stole my wallet (indicates something outside the speakers vicinity)
---- problem is that sometimes the language is good on its own
---- depends on who is using it too
Gender Differences in Language Use (ex. p. 155).
- females were persuasive with men when they used powerless speech and persuasive with females using powerful speech. with men it didn't matter as much.. women may be more sensitive to the types of language.
immediacy and the direct effects model
immediacy: nonverbal ways of showing warmth, closeness, friendliness, involvement with other people (smile, lean forward)
- according to the DIRECT EFFECTS MODEL of immediacy: there is a simple relationship between nonverbal behavior and social influence (warm, involving, immediate behaviors lead to increased persuasion)
Results of Kleinke’s (1980) study on eye contact and persuasion
some people were asked to ask people at an airport for money for 1. a phone call ( a legit request) or 2. a candy bar.

eye contact made more money with legitimate requests is hurt them more with illegitimate requests. looking away with an illigitimate request made them seem embarrassed.
people who do not use eye contact to their advantage may have problems with
trust
Body position and persuasion
*just as your mirror facial expressions, you can mirror body body movements
*people that lean forward make more of an impact
*open body position helps as well
mirroring or mimicry
smile when others smile or frown when other frown
body position: emblems
nonverbal behaviors usually hand movements that have precise verbal meaning. can substitute words. traffic cops, referees, all use hand gestures to communicate hi, i dont know, bye, good luck, etc.
standing participants are less persuaded than
relaxing participants
body position: illustrators
second type of gesture that accompanies speech. emphasize what is being said. child saying i love you "this much" while spreading her arms. can be used to give direction, show excitement
actors who used more forceful and rhythmic gestures were more persuasive when they
used more illustrators. and speakers look more composed.
self touching behaviors: ()
(adaptors) scratching your arm, rubbing your cheek, picking your knows are known as adaptors. use of adaptors are associated with less persuasion. self touching behaviors are seen as a lack of composure.
haptics:
touch someone. waiters that touched their customers got higher tips. can help someone be more persuasive but sometimes people could misinterpret the touch as flirty.
proxemics:
how we use space to communicate. being geographically close to someone initiates closeness and can create persuasion.
personal space:
refers to what might be the invisible bubble around us.
- close distance may not always encourage compliance.
- speakers are more persuasive when they keep their distance.
expectancy violations theory


-- if you think the person perceives you as attractive, powerful or credible then..

-- never overdo it

-- if you think they think of you as icky then
we all have expectations for how close people should stand to us and when people get too close we experience arousal and may get distracted. if he or she is attractive, there may be a reward value.

-- stand a little further or closer than expected

--

-- you should maintain appropriate distance.
chronemics
study of how time is used to communicate.

being late decreases persuasiveness. having to wait for someone increases persuasiveness of the person you are waiting on (the doctors)
scarcity
ploys to save time. people love freedom and when they feel like that is threatened or limited people experience "psychological reactance"
a girl may like a dress but if she finds out there is only one left it becomes
scarce and she may 'react psychologically' by wanting the dress more than she did in the first place.
because psychological reactance is so uncomfortable..
places like barnes and noble let people come in, read a book, hang out at the coffee shop and have more of a chance of leaving with a book than if they were to just rush in and out.
artifacts
cars we drive, furniture we own and physical objects. good are viewed as an extension of oneself
first impressions are very important.
large offices in the corner are seen as
prestigous.. always meaning behind one thing.
products that make a person appear more or less credible can impact
their persuasion
while uniforms and higher status clothing are related to higher compliance...
apparel may not always be necessary for persuasion.
physical appearance of beauties or beast
beauty sells! beautiful people get more dates, they get more jobs, etc.
halo effect
one positive characteristic of a person causes us to see everything about the person in a positive light. if they are attractive, they must be trustworthy and competent.. HA.
following characteristics are related to persuasiveness
1. body shape
2. facial appearance
3. hair
4. height
body shape
1. ectomorph: thin and frail- tense, pessimistic
2. mesomorph: athletic, muscular- strong adventurous
3. endomorph: fat and round- warm, dependent (less likely to get jobs)

normal weight girls who eat small meals are thought to be the most socially attractive
facial appearance
1. wide cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, wide pupils, large smiles, medium nose, eyes not to far apart or too close... baby face are more attractive but less mature. mature faced people are supposed to portray expertise.. baby face look more honest
hair
people like hair, disneyland dont like beards even tho it makes men look more mature.

men like blondes, any hair color.
height
tall men have the advantage
- taller candidate normally gets president.
vocalics or paralinguistics
study of pitch, rate, pause, volume, tone, silences, laughs, screams, sighs
people like a person that speaks
clear, vary vocal frequency and intensity.
with ads
when people talk too loud and the topic is relevant, people just get distracted.
implicit and explicit conclusions
implicit is when a person can make a decision for themselves through an ad.

explicit is where the advertiser is blatant and forward about whether or not a person should or should not get something
when the message is more personally relevant to a person than
the implicit strategy is more useful. consistent with the elaboration likelihood model. explicit is often useful too. if people have a lot of knowledge about a product than it is better to use explicit persuasion than implicit.
gain framed, loss framed
wording things in a more positive manner
- focusing on the negative

people fear losses therefore they take greater risks to avoid those losses. it can go either way depending on the strength of the argument ( dont need to know)
quantity versus quality of argument
all you can eat buffet or fancy restaurant.. fill your stomach or get your tastebuds fulfilled.

for some people they are looking for the number of arguments to persuade them... for others its more about the quality of one or two arguments.
peripheral route may be

central route
quantity of arguments in Elaboration likelihood model

quality of arguments in elaboration likelihood model
evidence
while quantitative and qualitative are both useful reinard suggests using both narrative and statistical evidence to increase credibility. sometimes the amount of evidence can be a peripheral cue.
repetition
- mere exposure effect
familiar objects are more liked than less familiar ones. by merely repetitively being exposed something unfamiliar will become more familiar.

things can grow on us.
when people were presented with a familiar message that was no personally relevant to them they were likely to respond to the message
non analytically, taking the peripheral route (vice versa)
order effects
anticlimax order
climax order
pyramidal order

* putting your strongest arguments either first or last works best.
anticlimax order

climax order

pyramidal order
talk about the strong argument right in the beginning
- when the message comes last

-strong arguments in the middle
when presented with information for people to HEAR
order is important. they are looking for strong arguments to come before weak arguments
primacy and recency effects
primacy:: first argument presented has the best advantage

recency: later arguments have an advantage
primacy
works when you have two opposing messages back to back
recency effect
works better when you just have heard one message
salient, interesting arguments
have a tendency to create the primacy effect because people have a high interest that tapers over time.
1. first persuasive message --> second persuasive message (time delay)
2. first persuasive message (time delay) ----> second persuasive message
3. first persuasive message (time delay) ---> second persuasive message (time delay) `
1. measurement of effect (primacy effect most likely)
2. measurement of effect (recency effect most likely)
3. measurement of effect (neither primacy or recency forward)
inoculation theory
if you want to keep your body healthy, what should you do? eat wheaties, avoid sugar, stay rested and exercise. this is the SUPPORTIVE STRATEGY: how a stronger body will be better at warding off disease.
inoculation
when someone gives a person a small amount of the disease so your body can build antibodies and fight off the bigger disease next time.
cultural truisms
belief whose truth is taken for granted. "it is a good idea to to brush your teeth after every meal (generally accepted in our culture).
in a study they attacked cultural truisms. they used

1. supportive defense

2. inoculation defense
and 3. no defense
1. presented with several arguments that supported the cultural truism

2. expose the truism to some weak arguments before

3. none to defend the truism

-- any argument that attacked the truism before, allowed the people trying to defend the truism currently to be less persuaded than the argument with no defense where people were persuaded more.
one sided argument

two sided
where a person uses just one arguments side

2. where the person looks at the opposite side and the advocate side.
two sided arguments that are refutational (versus non-refutational)
are more persuasive
most effective to least effective type of argument and refutation
-two sided refutational: most effective
-one sided message
-two sided non-refutational: least effective.
forewarning:
forewarning an audience of a persuasive message can be an effective way of making the audience resistant to that message.

1. you can warn people that they will hear a message intended to persuade.
2. you can warn people by telling them about the topic and position taken in the persuasive message.


sometimes can piss people off by telling them they are too gullible (threatening their self concept).
distraction and persuasion
bracketing: send hecklers to opponents speeches. - heckling may actually help the opponent.

to be persuaded.. people must first be able to understand the message and if a heckler is distracting people.. then people cannot understand the message.

- one could also be distracted by internal issues like if someone is standing too close. or when someone is using language that is too intense.
psychological reactance
we like to feel free to laugh or to be persuaded and if we feel that freedom is in jeapardy we REACT and we dont laugh or we resist persuasion.
Baron (2000) notes that indoctrination into cults occurs in four main stages. List and define (i.e., discuss and provide an example) of each of these four stages.
four stages
1. softening up stage- recruits targeted when vulnerable. given love and attention, then stressed...
2. compliance: because the recruits feel loved, they experiment and may change their diet, sleep and appearance.
3. internalization: recruits may consider more demands to be more accepted (all nonmembers are evil)
4. consolidation: recruits become loyal by abandoning their careers or donating personal possessions.
What role does Cognitive Dissonance play in conformity to these groups/cults?
dissonance: when ones self image is inconsistent with ones beliefs, attitudes or behaviors.

if there is a separation, an identity crisis or dissonance ones identity, it can make a person much more vulnerable to fall to the "persuasiveness" of joining a cult and becoming more accepted.

the cult can provide identification to a person so that they can find a way to feel like they are a part of a group by having a feeling that they are united in substance.
Finally, identify two major cults from history (see p. 122). Who were the major players?
thirty nine members of heavens gate led by marshall applewhite commit suicide in california- die so they can join the mother ship following the hale bopp comet.

2. reverend jim jones and 900 followers including children commit suicide in jonestown by drinking cyanide laced punch.